Origin and Planting:
H2o yam (D. Alata Linn) is one of the oldest food stuff crops so significantly. It belongs to the relatives of Monocotyledonous vegetation. It originated in South-East Asia in Burma. From there it spreads to India, Malaysia, Indonesia and Eastern component of South-East Asia. It served as food stuff for voyagers and was thus distribute to the components of the tropics. Immigrants from India and Malaysia introduced it to Madagascar from exactly where it was introduced into East Africa in the 16th Century. It was introduced to West African international locations by the Portuguese and Spanish.
Today, h2o yam is the most widely distributed of all the yams, currently being grown in all components of the tropics. It is the most thoroughly cultivated species of ya in the West Indies, the Pacific Islands and tropical Asia. It is known as ‘greater yam’ or ‘ten month’ yam. It can be located in some spots in Nigeria. It is termed (Ewura) in Yoruba land, it is the major staple food stuff in Ijebu location – Western Nigeria.
H2o yam is planted inside the months of March – April which is the beginning of the wet year ans also at the beginning of the dry year (October – November). Late planting yield inadequately. It matures in 8 – 10 months and keeps much better in storage than other species mainly because they remain dormant for several months. It grows greatest at temperature in between 25oC and 30oC. it necessitates soil that is effectively drained, of substantial fertility and substantial in organic and natural matter hence loamy soil is greatest. It grows in a shorter time than the white yam and possesses a fibrous root process. Most of the roots come about in the prime-soil, 30cm, over the soil level.
The tubers vary considerably in form and dimension, dependent on the soil and how deep the ground is when planting. They may possibly come about singly or in groups, straight or branched. This yam has a bigger proportion of h2o than possibly the white or yellow yam. Its unfastened or watery texture is commonly recognizable when the tuber is cut or grated. The tuber may possibly be purple, white, yellow, light-weight brown or practically crimson in colour when peeled. The leaves are distinctively various from other folks, currently being coronary heart-shaped, long, wide and winged at the petiode. The stems commonly have no spines and they climb round the stakes in a counter-clockwise course.
H2o yam can be eaten boiled, mashed, fried, or combined with palm-oil or groundnut oil and steamed. Flour can also be built from it. Dishes this sort of as ‘Isikolo’, ‘Ojojo’, Pounded yam, ‘Ikokore’, pottage and fritters can be built from it. It can also be cooked with beans. Dishes this sort of as Queen Cakes, Biscuits and pastries can be organized from h2o yam flour.
Nutritional benefit of h2o yam:
Moisture = 70%, Starch = 28%, Sugar = .5%, Unwanted fat = .1% – .3%, Crude protein = 1.1% – 2.8%, Crude fibre = .6 – 1.4%, Ash = .7% – 2.1%, Vitamin C (mg for every 100g) = 5 – 8%, Vitamin B1 (mg for every 100g) = .09%, Vitamin B2 (mg for every 100g) = .03% and Vitamin A.
5 (5) H2o Yam Dishes
1. H2o yam queen cakes:
(1.) 100gm h2o yam flour. (2.) 100gm wheat flour. (3.) 175gm margarine. (4.) 174gm sugar. (5.) 1 tablespoon baking powder. (6.) 2 eggs. (7.) 150ml milk.
(1.) Product the margarine and sugar until finally comfortable, white and creamy. (2.) Increase the crushed eggs and continue beating to get in the air. (3.) Sieve h2o yam and wheat flour and baking powder collectively. (4.) Increase the flour and combine with chilly milk to a dropping regularity. Increase vanilla essence. (5.) Place in greased patty tins and bake in a moderate oven for 20 minutes.
2. Ojojo (Western African food stuff):
(1.) 100gm grated h2o yam. (2.) 1 smaller onion (finely chopped). (3.) Pepper (chopped). (4.) Salt and herbs to style. (5.) Oil for frying.
(1.) Chop onion and pepper finely. (2.) Beat the grated h2o yam and include a little h2o if too thick. (3.) Increase the organized ingredients and salt. Beat collectively once again. (4.) Fry in balls in deep unwanted fat. (5.) Drain and provide warm by itself or with bread.
3. Ikokore (Nigerian food stuff):
(1.) 100gm h2o yam.
(2.) 30-50gm boned smoked fish.
(3.) 2 kitchen area spoons palm oil.
(4.) Salt to style.
(5.) Shrimps as desired.
(6) 1 tablespoon ground pepper.
(7.) 1 tablespoon onion.
(8.) 1 tablespoon tomato.
(9.) ½ teaspoon fermented melon seed.
(1.) Peel and grate the h2o yam.
(2.) Place h2o in the cooking pot and include organized fish and ingredients. Make it possible for combination to boil for a few minutes.
(3.) Increase the grated h2o yam to the gravy in lumps and permit to prepare dinner initial prior to stirring.
(4.) Increase the oil and salt, stirring gently with a picket spoon.
(5.) Simmer gently.
(6.) Serve warm possibly on its individual or with chilly pap (eko) or agidi.
4. Yam chips:
(1.) 1 smaller h2o yam. (2.) Salt to style. (3.) Unwanted fat (oil).
(1.) Wash and peel yam.
(2.) Slice in fifty percent lengthwise and slice thinly on a chopping board.
(3.) Soak in chilly h2o.
(4.) Drain in sieve and wrap in cleanse cloth for about 15 – 20 minutes separating the slices to reduce them from matting.
(5.) Fry in warm unwanted fat until finally evenly golden-brown.
(6.) Eliminate, drain and pile on a warm dish sprinkle with salt and provide.
5. H2o yam pottage:
(1.) 1 major h2o yam.
(2.) 2 tablespoons ground crimson pepper.
(3.) 3 tablespoons ground onion.
(4.) 1 tablespoon tomato puree.
(5.) Salt to style.
(6.) 6 tablespoons palm oil or groundnut oil.
(7.) 4 tablespoons ground shrimps.
(8.) Cooked beef or 2 parts smoked fish.
(1.) Peel the yam and cut into smaller parts.
(2.) Rinse and put to boil.
(3.) When it is fifty percent cooked, include salt, ground ingredients, oil, meat or fish and simmer till cooked.
N.B.: If comfortable pottage is necessary, h2o can be extra and some of the yam can be mashed if beef or fish is not extra provide with fish or beef stew.
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