Posts Tagged ‘Languages’

Speedy and great quran recition-Surah Al-Maidah-in 50+ Languages- Open up the subtitle

Speedy and great quran recition-Surah Al-Maidah-in 50+ Languages- Open up the subtitle



!! Be sure to Open up THE SUBTITLE !!
Remarkable High definition or Total High definition Quran Movies.
Most of them have 50+ languages subtitles. Yu may need to have to open up the subtitle.
For the to start with time in the globe, quran videos on YouTube are printed in more than 50 languages’ subtitles.

Albanian, Amharic, Azerbaijani, Bengali, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Catalan, Chinese, Croatian, Czech, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Hausa, Hindi, Icelandic, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Kazakh, Korean, Kurdish, Latvian, Malay, Malayalam, Marathi, Norwegian, Pashto, Persian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Sindhi, Slovak, Somali, Spanish, Swahili, Swedish, Tajik, Tamil, Tatar, Telugu, Thai, Turkish, Urdu, Uyghur, Uzbek

You can use and share the videos and subtitles of this channel for non-gain uses as a great deal as you wish. The videos and subtitles are Attribution-NonCommercial 4. Global (CC BY-NC 4.).

See for details.

50’den fazla dilde High definition kalitesinde muhteşem görüntülerle enfes okuyan hafızların dilinden kuran videoları. Dünyada ilk kez Youtube’da quran videoları aynı video clip üzerinden 50’den fazla dille yayınlanmaktadır.

!! LÜTFEN ALTYAZILARI AÇIN. !!

Almanca, Amharca, Arnavutça, Azerbaycanca, Bengalce, Boşnakça, Bulgarca, Çekçe, Çince, Endonezyaca, Farsça, Fince, Flemenkçe, Fransızca, Hausa dili, Hırvat, Hintçe, İngilizce, İspanyolca, İsveççe, İtalyanca, İzlandaca, Japonca, Katalanca, Kazak, Koreli, Kürt, Lehçe, Letonca, Malayca, Malayalamca, Marathice, Norveççe, Özbekçe, Pashto dili, Portekizce, Romence, Rusça, Sindhice, Slovakça, Somalice, Svahili dili, Tacikçe, Tamilce, Tatarca, Tay dili, Telugu dili,
Türkçe, Urduca, Uygurca

Bu kanala ait videoları ve altyazıları istediğiniz gibi kar amacı gütmeyen amaçlarla kullanabilirsiniz ve paylaşabilirsiniz.

Videolar ve altyazılar Attribution-NonCommercial 4. Global (CC BY-NC 4.) altındadır. adresinde ayrıntılar mevcuttur.

!! ОТКРЫВАЙСЯ СУБТИТРЫ !!
Прекрасный High definition или Total High definition Коран Видео.
Большинство из них имеют более 50 языков субтитров. Возможно, вам потребуется открыть субтитр.
Впервые в мире видеоролики quran публикуются на субтитрах на 50 языках.

!! Silakan aktifkan Subtitle. !!.
Indah High definition atau Video clip High definition Quran penuh.
Kebanyakan dari mereka memiliki 50 + bahasa sub judul. Anda mungkin perlu membuka subjudul.
Untuk pertama kalinya di dunia, video clip quran diterbitkan dalam sub judul 50 bahasa.

Kazakça
!! Қосыңыз Субтитрлер СҰРАЙМЫЗ. !!
Құран High definition немесе Total High definition Бейне Әдемі.
Құран бейнелер 50-ден астам тілде әлемде алғаш рет жарияланады.

ओपन उपशीर्षक
अद्भुत एचडी या पूर्ण एचडी कुरान वीडियो
उनमें से अधिकतर 50+ भाषाओं की उपशीर्षक हैं आपको उपशीर्षक खोलने की आवश्यकता हो सकती है
दुनिया में पहली बार, कुरान वीडियो 50 भाषाओं में प्रकाशित किए जाते हैं ‘उपशीर्षक

مدهش كامل هد القرآن الكريم أشرطة الفيديو في 50+ اللغات.

الألبانية والأمهرية والأذربيجانية والبنغالية والبوسنية والبلغارية والكاتالانية والصينية والكرواتية والتشيكية والهولندية والإنجليزية والفنلندية والفرنسية والألمانية والهوسا والهندية والأيسلندية والإندونيسية والإيطالية واليابانية والكازاخية والكورية والكردية واللاتفية، الملايو، المالايالامية، الماراثى، النرويجية، الباشتو، الفارسية، البولندية، البرتغالية، الرومانية، الروسية، السندية، السلوفاكية، الصومالية، الإسبانية، السواحلية، السويدية، الطاجيكية، التاميلية، التتار، التيلجو، التايلاندية، التركية، الأوردو،

惊人的全高清古兰经视频在50多种语言。
!! 请打开副标题!

阿尔巴尼亚语,阿姆哈拉语,阿塞拜疆语,孟加拉语,波斯尼亚语,保加利亚语,加泰罗尼亚语,中文,克罗地亚语,捷克语,荷兰语,英语,芬兰语,法语,德语,豪萨语,印地语,冰岛语,印度尼西亚语,意大利语,日语,哈萨克语,韩语,库尔德语,拉脱维亚语, 马来西亚,马拉雅拉语,马拉地语,挪威语,波斯语,波兰语,葡萄牙语,罗马尼亚语,俄语,辛迪语,斯洛伐克语,索马里语,西班牙语,斯瓦希里语,瑞典语,塔吉克语,泰米尔语,鞑靼语,泰卢固语,泰国语,土耳其语,乌尔都语,维吾尔族,乌兹别克语

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Simple Psychological Tips for Learning Languages

Simple Psychological Tips for Learning Languages

by Philip Yaffe

Native English-speakers are increasingly exhorted to learn foreign languages to play a more effective role in globalization. However, we tend not to learn foreign languages for three very valid reasons.

1. Many other peoples in the world are not just exhorted to learn English, they are required to do so. Thus, you can find English virtually everywhere you go.

2. The grammar of most other languages, certainly most European languages, is much more complex than English. Thus, native Anglophones often view language learning as a daunting, and even demoralizing task.

3. Most native Anglophones, especially in North America, live in almost exclusively English-speaking environments. We virtually never hear other languages spoken live, on radio or television, and virtually never see them written in newspapers, magazines, books, etc. This is hardly motivating.

The fact is, the world conspires against Anglophones learning other languages. So if you speak only English, you have no reason to be ashamed.

Nevertheless, while these factors explain why so few Anglophones know other languages, they are not valid excuses for not learning them when the situation calls for it. For example, you are sent to open or manage a foreign subsidiary, you are assigned to negotiate or maintain working relationships with a foreign partner, etc.

How should you go about learning a foreign language with the least pain and most gain? In my experience, the secret lies in changing your mindset.

I live in Brussels, Belgium. I speak French fluently, understand and can more-or-less get around in Dutch and German, and I am now rapidly acquiring Spanish. But the first language I mastered was none of these. It was Swahili, which I learned when I spent two-and-a-half years working as a Peace Corps volunteer in Tanzania.

Like many (probably most) Americans growing up in an essentially English-speaking environment, I thought the ability to speak another language required superior intelligence; only people endowed with this unique talent could actually achieve it. Shortly after I got to Tanzania, I visited in a remote tribal area where virtually everyone spoke three languages. Moreover, virtually none of them had ever seen the inside of a school (there just weren’t any schools), let alone graduated from a prestigious university (UCLA).

I therefore had to radically rethink my attitude towards language learning. This new mindset has significantly helped me master the languages I now regularly use. I will illustrate with French, the language I know best. But remember, these same tips and techniques apply to learning virtually any language

Seeing Is Learning

If you are studying French, it is probably for one of two reasons. Either you are required to do so for school or for your job. Or because French is “a language of culture,” i.e. no properly educated person should be without it.

Whatever your reason, here is some good news. Learning to speak French is perhaps the easiest part of the task.

What!

I know you may have thought that speaking is the most difficult part. However, I would argue that most people can learn to speak French reasonably well within 5-7 months.

Writing French is quite a different story. French is one of the most complex written languages in the world. In fact, written French and spoken French are almost two separate languages. If your objective is to speak French, you should first concentrate on speaking, then let the written language follow at a more leisurely pace.

In some quarters this may sound like heresy, because the majority of language courses try to teach both speaking and writing at the same time. I believe this is a mistake. Also, I am not advocating “total immersion.” Few of us have the luxury of spending a week, or preferably several weeks, totally concentrating on learning a language.

What I am advocating is doing things in the proper psychological order.

Most people can master enough basic grammar to be able to speak (poorly but nevertheless coherently), and to understand what is being said to them, really quite quickly. This is because the major obstacle to acquiring another language is not grammar; it’s vocabulary.

If you don’t know the verb you need, it doesn’t matter that you know how to conjugate French verbs; you still cannot speak. If you don’t know the adjective you need, it doesn’t matter that you know how to decline French adjectives; you still cannot speak. And so on. 

I therefore suggest that the most effective order for learning would be:

1. Basic French grammar — the minimum necessary to put together an intelligible (if incorrect) sentence

2. Basic French vocabulary — the minimum necessary to begin using the basic grammar

3. Elaborated French grammar and vocabulary — building on basic grammar and vocabulary as soon as you can actually use them

4. Writing in French — tackling the daunting task of putting French on paper.

If vocabulary is crucial, then the largely unrecognized key to learning to speak French is: Learn to read it.

There is nothing like being able to sit down with a French newspaper, magazine, or even a novel to reinforce both grammar and vocabulary. The more you read, the more your vocabulary will expand. And the more some of French’s apparently bizarre ways of doing things will seem increasingly normal.

For best results, the novel should contain a maximum of dialogue and a minimum of description. With dialogue, you can more or less anticipate and interpret what the characters are saying; with description you haven’t a clue. When I was learning French, I used mystery novels by Agatha Christie and Tarzan novels by Edgar Rice Burroughs because they are about 90 percent dialogue and 10 percent description. However, any novels with a strong emphasis of dialogue will do.

The problem is, as in English the words you see written in many, many cases will be spelled quite differently from how they are pronounced. So if you are going to improve your spoken vocabulary by reading, you will need some way of translating what is written into what is said.

You will find some important tips on how to do this at the end of the article (“How to Pronounce Silent Letters”). However, if you are lucky enough to know a native French speaker, don’t hesitate to ask him or her for help. Not to carry on a conversation, but to ensure that you are properly pronouncing what you are seeing in print. If you don’t have the luxury of a French-speaking friend, try the Internet. Put into any search engine French + audio to access an almost endless number of websites with audio examples to help you.

It’s All in the Mind

If French is your first foreign language, let me assure you that while learning it is not easy, it is far from impossible. And you don’t have to be either a genius or have a “natural talent” for languages to achieve it.

As noted above, most of the people I met in Tanzania spoke at least two languages and often three or more, even those in remote bush areas untouched by formal education. This was nothing exceptional. People in similar circumstances in virtually every country of the world speak two or more languages as a matter of course. Here in Belgium, around Brussels even burger-flippers at McDonald’s are expected to speak both Dutch and French, two of the countries three official national languages (German is the third), plus English.

If they can master other languages, certainly you can, too. Admittedly, it is never easy; however, it is far from impossible — and the rewards can be astounding.

When I first arrived in Tanzania, I was speaking in Swahili by translating through English. However, one magic day I suddenly realized that I was no longer translating through English. I was speaking in Swahili directly. It was like being released from prison. Although this happened more than 40 years ago, the picture of my cell door flying open and my mind flying free is as vivid now as the day it happened. It’s an experience not to be missed!

The process of learning another language is greatly facilitated by understanding and bearing in mind two key psychological principles.

1.   Facility Principle: What you don’t have to do is always easier than what you do have to do

In other words, the less you have to think about in learning French, the more rapidly you will learn it. And the fewer mistakes you will make. Believe it or not, French (both written and spoken) has certain features and characteristics that make it objectively easier than English. Pronunciation provides a perfect example.

Most people are largely unaware of how seriously difficult their own native language could be to a foreigner. As a native Anglophone, you probably find that English is quite easy to pronounce. But the fact is, French is even easier.

What! With its nasalization, trilled “r” and other difficult sounds? Yes, and I can prove it!

First, it is important to understand that no sounds, in any language, are inherently difficult to pronounce. If they were, they wouldn’t exist because the native speakers never would have accepted them into their language in the first place.

Learning foreign sounds is never easy; French speakers learning English have a terrible time with the “th” sound in words such as “the,” “they,” “through,” “throw,” etc. Because there is no equivalent sound in French, they have great difficulty in mastering it. But it certainly isn’t impossible. Just as it may be difficult, but certainly not impossible, for you to master unfamiliar sounds in French.

Where French pronunciation has an undeniable advantage over English (and most other European languages) is its virtual lack of a “tonic accent.”

Tonic accent simply means that certain syllables in a word are given more stress than are others. For example, “difficult” is pronounced “dif-fi-cult”; the first syllable carries the tonic accent. It could just as easily be pronounced dif-fi-cult,” which is what the Spanish prefer (dif--cil). Or even “dif-fi-cult.”

Technically, the tonic accent does exist in French, but it is very hard to hear it. For example, in English we say “un-i-ver-sal.” In French, this is “un-i-ver-sel,” with no apparent stress anywhere. Likewise with “restau-rant,which in French is “rest-au-rant.” And so on.Thus, you never have to guess where the tonic accent should go, so you can never make a mistake

As a native Anglophone, you have grown up with the tonic accent, so you might not immediately recognize what a blessing this is. However, if you have had any dealings with foreigners speaking English, you know that if they put the tonic accent on the wrong syllable, you might not understand the word at all. By foreigners, I don’t necessarily mean non-native English speakers. If you are American, try conversing with an Australian or an Englishman; you are likely to have the same problem. And vice versa.

2.   Familiarity Principle: Familiar habits and patterns of thought are often hard to break

Paradoxically, some of the aspects of French that are easier than English at first glance will appear to be strange — and therefore falsely difficult. Although it may take you some time to accept them, once you begin to think in French, you will rapidly come to appreciate them and enjoy their benefits. Here are a couple of anecdotes to illustrate the point.

  A.  Straight is more difficult than zigzag

One time I was talking with a Dutch-speaking friend. He agreed that English is fundamentally simpler than his own language; nevertheless, he complained that he just couldn’t get used to English’s simpler sentence structure. In certain instances, Dutch grammar requires the order of the words of the sentence to suddenly reverse; this never happens in English. Objectively, then, English sentence structure should be easier than Dutch. But to him, not reversing the word order just didn’t seem natural

B.  Never overlook the obvious

One day I was telling a French-speaking friend of mine about my experiences in Tanzania. I mentioned that Swahili has the interesting characteristic of forming plurals with a prefix rather than a suffix. For example, the Swahili word for book is kitabu; the plural is vitabu. So to go from the singular to the plural, you change the beginning of the word rather than the end. His reaction was swift and surprising.

He:  They can’t do that! They can’t form plurals with a prefix!

Me:  It’s their language. They can form plurals anyway they want.

He:  But it makes no sense. And I can prove it. Which is more important, what a word means or whether it is singular or plural?

Me:  What a word means.

He:  Then announcing that a word is plural before saying the word is illogical.

Me:  I agree. So why do you do the same thing in French?

He:  We don’t do that in French!

Me:  Of course you do. And I can prove it.

You need to understand that in French, as in many other languages, the definite article (“the”) has both a singular and plural form. Why? I don’t know, that’s just how it is. In French you say le livre to mean “the book,” but you say les livres to mean “the books.” The definite article le (pronounced “luh”) changes to les (pronounced “lay”). So just as in Swahili, French requires you first to announce whether the following word is singular or plural, then say what it is.

My friend was astounded. What he had found so strange, and even absurd, in another language turned out to be exactly what he was doing in his own. Suddenly Swahili no longer seemed quite so bizarre.

Context and Comprehension

Before proceeding, it is necessary to make a fundamental observation.

No amount of grammar and vocabulary can fully cover every situation that may arise in using a language, your native language or a foreign one.

Language is used to communicate meaning, but meaning often depends on context. Therefore, what you say may be grammatically correct, but still not communicate the meaning you have in mind.

The importance of context in communication can be demonstrated by a simple example. J’ai besoin d’un avocat / I need an avocat. How would you interpret this sentence? Avocat means both “avocado” and “lawyer,” so you could interpret it in two ways: 1) I am making a Mexican salad and I need this particular fruit, 2) I am having legal problems and I need professional help.

Without knowing what preceded the statement, there is no way of deciding which interpretation is correct. It is only within context that we can know.

According to the celebrated dictum, “Translation is treason.” In other words, when you go from one language to another, chances are you will fail to transfer some important nuances. I would like to propose a new dictum. Within the same language, “Context is comprehension.” In other words, many apparent problems of English or French (or any other language) tend to disappear within the context of their use.

Context is vital; it must always be taken into account.

How to Pronounce Silent Letters

If this sounds like a contradiction in terms, it really isn’t. Remember, you will be doing a lot of reading to improve your vocabulary and to get used to thinking in French. The problem is, the words you will see written in many, many cases will be spelled quite differently from how they are pronounced. So if you are going to improve your spoken vocabulary by reading, you will need some way of converting what is written into what is said. Fortunately, with many other languages (e.g. Dutch, German, Italian, Spanish, Swahili), this is much less of a problem.

The major part of the disconnection between spoken and written French has to do with silent letters. French is littered with them. However, there are some strategies you can use to help you pronounce what you see.

Silent letters that do Not affect pronunciation

Most silent letters come at the end of words. The two letters “s” and “x” almost never affect pronunciation.

The silent “s” is the ubiquitous ending for plural nouns, articles and adjectives. It is not pronounced. Neither is “x”, which also sometimes indicates a plural and is often the ending on masculine adjectives. For example: chien – chiens, grand – grands, élegant – élegants, pou – poux, jeu – jeux, peureux (adjective), fâcheux (adjective), etc.

The silent “s” is also often found at the end of words for no apparent reason other than to be decorative. For example: cas (kah), pas (pah), souris (sooree), tapis (tahpee), héros (eeroh), sans (sahn), moins (mwehn), pis (pee), etc. The words bus (bewss), as (ahss), fils (feess), non-sens (nahn-sahnss), sens (sahnss), tournevis (toornahveess), and vis (veess) are important exceptions.

The silent “x” is also often found at the end of words for no apparent reason: prix (pree), voix (vwah), noix (nwah),paix (pay), croix (krwah), taux (toh), toux (too),etc.

Words ending in a silent “s” or a silent “x” have the same pronunciations and spellings in both the singular and the plural. 

Silent letters that Do affect pronunciation

The silent “e”

The silent “e” is the ubiquitous ending indicating a feminine noun or adjective. It itself is never pronounced, but it may change the pronunciation of the syllable to which it is attached. For example: vrai – vraie, bleu – bleue, cru – crue(no change of pronunciation). But boulanger (masculine), pronounced boo-lahn-zhay; boulangère (feminine), pronounced boo-lahn-zhair. Caissier (masculine), pronounced kay-see-ay, caissière (feminine), pronounced kay-see-air. Port (masculine), pronounced por, porte (feminine), pronounced port.

Silent letters that affect pronunciation in verbs

Silent letters that change pronunciation occur mainly in conjugated verb forms, and specifically in the imperfect and conditional tenses.

Imperfect tense

Je parlais, tu parlais: The “s” itself is not pronounced. Without it, the ending “ai” would be pronounced “ay.” With it, the ending “ais” is pronounced “eh.”

Example:  parlai = par-lay. parlais = par-leh.

Il/elle parlait: The “t” itself is not pronounced. Without it, the ending “ai” would be pronounced “ay.” With it, the ending “ait” is pronounced “eh.”

Example:  parlai = par-lay. parlait = par-leh

Ils/elles parlaient:The “ent” itself is not pronounced. Without it, the ending “ai” would be pronounced “ay.” With it, the ending “aient” is pronounced “eh.”

Example:  parlai = par-lay.  parlaient = par-leh

Conditional tense

The conditional tense uses the same endings as the imperfect tense, so the effects of the silent letters are the same.

Je parlerais, tu parlerais: The “s” itself is not pronounced. Without it, the ending “ai” would be pronounced “ay.” With it, the ending “ais” is pronounced “eh.”

Example:  parlerai = par-ler-ay.  parlerais = par-ler-eh.

Il/elle parlerait: The “t” itself is not pronounced. Without it, the ending “ai” would be pronounced “ay.” With it, the ending “ait” is pronounced “eh.”

Example:  parlerai = par-ler-ay.  parlerait = par-ler-eh.

Ils/elles parleraient:The “ent” itself is not pronounced. Without it, the ending “ai” would be pronounced “ay.” With it, the ending “aient” is pronounced “eh.”

Example:  parlerai = par-ler-ay.  parleraient = par-ler-eh.

Pronouncing nouns and adjectives with silent endings

French writing is characterized by its enormous number of nouns and adjectives with silent endings that are pronounced nothing like how they are spelled. Therefore, in order to use reading as a basis for speaking, you must be able to determine their pronunciation. This is not always easy, but there are some generalizations that can help.

Words ending in a silent “t” 

Most nouns and adjectives with a silent ending other than “s” or “x” will end in a silent “t”. The combinations are:

a. ait: This combination is pronounced “ay.” Examples: attrait (ah-tray), fait (fay), lait (lay), portrait (por-tray).

b. art: This combination is pronounced “ahr.” Examples: art (ahr), part (pahr), rempart (rahm-pahr).

  1. at, ât: These are both pronounced “ah”; the accent circonflexe (^) has no effect on the pronunciation. Examples: dégât (day-gah), état (ay-tah), plat (plah), rat (rah).

d. ert: This combination is pronounced “air.” Examples: couvert (coo-vair), ouvert (oo-vair), pivert (pee-vair)

e. et, êt: This combination is pronounced “ay”; the accent circonflexe (^) has no effect on the pronunciation. Examples: billet (bee-yay), complet (com-play), filet (fee-lay), forêt (for-ay), intérêt (ehn-ter-ay).

  1. ort: This combination is pronounced “or.” Examples: fort (for), effort (eh-for), mort (mor), port (por), sort (sor), tort (tor).

g. ot: This combination is pronounced “oh.” Examples: boulot (boo-loh), complot (com-ploh), lot (loh), rigolot (ree-goh-loh)

  1. out, oût: These are both pronounced “oo”; the accent circonflexe (^) has no effect on the pronunciation. Examples: bout (boo), goût (goo), tout (too),
  1. ut: This combination is pronounced “ew” as in “few.” Examples: début (day-bew), rebut (reh-bew), statut (stah-tew), substitut (sub-stee-tew). The word but (goal, objective) is an important exception, being pronounced “bewt.” The word scorbut (scurvy), pronounced “skor-bewt” is also an exception, but you will probably have little use for it in normal conversation.

Note

 

There is no equivalent of the French “u” sound in English. It comes close to the “u” sound in “few” if you tighten your lips while saying it, This book uses “ew” to indicate the sound in writing. However, the only way to really get the sound is to listen to a French speaker — and then practice. Free online French courses with sound files are excellent for this purpose.

Words ending in “er”

The ending “er” is extremely important. It is the infinitive ending on a major class of verbs, where it is pronounced “ay.” Examples: assister (ah-sees-tay), fermer (fehr-may), manger (mahn-zhay), participer (pahr-tee-see-pay), etc.

It is also the ending on numerous nouns and adjectives, where is it also pronounced “ay.”

Examples: chantier (shan-tee-ay), fermier (fehr-mee-ay), héritier (eer-it-ee-ay), premier (pray-mee-ay), etc.

Words ending in other silent letters 

Silent endings other than “s”, “x”, “r” or “t” are relatively rare. But some of these words are rather important, so you will need to know how to pronounce them when you see them written. Here are a few of the most common ones.

  • · accord (ah-cor): agreement
  • · corps (cor): body, as in the expression ésprit de corps
  • · coup (coo): hit, strike, or blow, as in coup d’état
  • · nez (nay): nose
  • · pied (pee-ay): foot
  • · riz (ree): rice
  • · trop (troh): too much

Je vous souhaite bonne chance et bon amusement (Zhe voo soo-ate bone shance ay bon ahmusmahn) / I wish you good luck and good fun.

This article is excerpted from the author’s book Gentle French: French grammar as native speakers really use it.

—————————

Philip Yaffe was born in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1942 and grew up in Los Angeles, where he graduated from the University of California with a degree in mathematics and physics. In his senior year, he was also editor-in-chief of the Daily Bruin, UCLA’s daily student newspaper.

He has more than 40 years of experience in journalism and international marketing communication. At various points in his career, he has been a teacher of journalism, a reporter/feature writer with The Wall Street Journal, an account executive with a major international press relations agency, European marketing communication director with two major international companies, and a founding partner of a specialized marketing communication agency in Brussels, Belgium, where he has lived since 1974.

Books by this Author

The Gettysburg Approach to Writing & Speaking like a Professional

The Gettysburg Collection:

A comprehensive companion to The Gettysburg Approach to Writing & Speaking like a Professional

Actual English: English grammar as native speakers really use it

Gentle French: French grammar as native speakers really use it

What’d You Say? / Que Dites-Vous?

Fun with homophones, proverbs, expressions, false friends, and other linguistic oddities in English and French

Science for the Concerned Citizen: What You Don’t Know CAN Hurt You.

The Little Book of BIG Mistakes

The Eighth Decade: Reflections on a Life

Major Achievements of Lesser-known Scientists: Human Biology

Books in “The Essential Ten Percent” Series

(at August 2012)

College-level Writing: The Essential Ten Percent

Logical Thinking: The Essential Ten Percent

Public Speaking: The Essential Ten Percent

The Human Body: The Essential Ten Percent

Wise Humor: The Essential Ten Percent

Word for Windows: The Essential Ten Percent



Source by Philip Yaffe

Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by admin - September 21, 2017 at 1:37 pm

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Why Find out International Languages?

Why Find out International Languages?

Our planet is receiving at any time more linked and the citizens of the planet are swiftly bridging nationwide, social, and linguistic dissimilarities. When crossing cultural boundaries, language is the one most vital software. Language offers the critical to broadening career and academic chances, boosting the trade of concepts and information and facts, and of study course enjoying the beauty of other cultures.

For lots of people today who stopped finding out languages at school and have not been concerned considering the fact that then, the prospect of finding out new languages can be alternatively overwhelming. It can get hard do the job to achieve a excellent regular and then there is the challenge of maintaining that degree of proficiency. But there is no purpose why you ought to not enjoy and do well in finding out languages like Hindustani or Chinese. Even however people today are all diverse – they discover at diverse pace ranges and have diverse pronunciation – they have a tendency to be very best when it arrives to finding out and to speaking. With the appropriate mindset, finding out techniques, and direction, you can grasp any language. The lots of benefits are noticeable.

Comprehend the Globe

“Language is the usually means of receiving an thought from my brain into yours with no operation” – Mark Amidon

Language is the resource of lots of misunderstandings, in particular so when speaking throughout cultural boundaries. Despite the fact that English is commonly recognised as a broadly spoken and understood language in the planet, it is nonetheless considerably from ample for being familiar with cultures of other linguistic backgrounds. It goes with no declaring that you attain more from a visit to a country if you can converse in the regional language and actually get to know the people today alternatively than just speaking in English with people today in the tourism market or academic elites. Use of even the most standard vocabulary assists to break down boundaries and build excellent associations. It displays your regard in the direction of the people today of the country and that you get a real desire in them.

A standard understanding of the place language is a moderately small activity to reach and ought to be included in anybody’s preparations. Discovering a assortment of critical words or expressions certain to your sector or occupation allows you to achieve out and uncover or give this means in discussions. Getting in a position to get your message throughout in the language of your place culture enables you to transition more easily and more and more immerse on your own. You will be in a position to express your views and speak for on your own, thus inviting chances for new friendships and attaining the have faith in and regard of your hosts.

Expose the Heart of Tradition

“To have an additional language is to possess a second soul” – Charlemagne

Text condition the way we consider. We dissect nature along traces laid down by our native language. Language is not simply just a reporting product for practical experience but a defining framework for it. Language is the highway map of a culture. It tells you the place its people today come from and the place they are going. It introduces you to a diverse way of contemplating and searching at the planet. Any language has its individual rich understanding foundation. The usually means to entry this understanding is the language itself.

Discovering a language is like receiving to know an full cultural or social process, with references to the lifestyle, geography, history, arts, financial state as properly modern day socio-cultural tactics which includes regional dialects and diversities, clothes kinds, as properly as the culinary tactics in the space the place the language is spoken. In addition to this, although you are finding out about the culture and the language of a particular area you have a tendency to review it with your individual language and culture. When performing this you consider of the similarities and dissimilarities among your language and the international language which qualified prospects to a considerably more deeper examine of your individual language and culture as properly.

Improve Your Cognitive Talents

“People who know very little of international languages know very little of their individual” – Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Discovering a new language will also assistance to sharpen your cognitive skills, greatly enhance your in general finding out capabilities, and strengthen your potential for finding out and working in several other regions. Psychological overall flexibility, creativity, problem-resolving and reasoning skills are amid the lots of beneficiaries of language examine.

Discovering a language up to any degree is a worthwhile achievement in itself. Finding out languages is a multi-faceted finding out practical experience, which enriches you in lots of means. Even if you only get a single introductory study course, you will discover a good deal about the way the new language will work, you will have a come to feel for its rhythms and sounds, and you will have an insight into the cultural history of its speakers.  Of study course, the even further you progress, the more worthwhile your understanding will become.

Widen Your Career Decisions

“A diverse language is a diverse eyesight of life” – Federico Fellini

In an age the place more and more organisations are crossing cultural boundaries, a command of international languages assists to break the linguistic boundaries and facilitates the trade of information and facts. When we discover a international language, we gradually develop the selection of language at our disposal and the selection of cases we can cope with in that language. Discovering a international language provides you an edge around the other people considering the fact that you become more equipped to face the world wide scenario than the people today who have a confined set of linguistic skills.

If you journey sometimes or to several diverse nations it is tricky to decide which language to discover and what degree is suitable. Even if you only reach a standard degree, finding out a international language displays that you are prepared to make an work, frequently assists you to assistance the organisation you are doing work for, improves your particular career potential customers, and boosts the gratification you can derive from doing work with people today of other cultural backgrounds.



Resource by Daniel Ratheiser

Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by admin - August 28, 2017 at 11:08 am

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Why Find out International Languages?

Why Find out International Languages?

Our planet is receiving ever much more connected and the citizens of the planet are speedily bridging nationwide, social, and linguistic discrepancies. When crossing cultural boundaries, language is the single most essential resource. Language gives the critical to broadening career and educational options, maximizing the trade of concepts and information and facts, and of study course having fun with the attractiveness of other cultures.

For quite a few people who stopped learning languages at school and have not been associated given that then, the prospect of learning new languages can be instead daunting. It can take challenging function to get to a great typical and then there is the problem of keeping that amount of proficiency. But there is no reason why you should really not delight in and be successful in learning languages like Hindustani or Chinese. Even although people are all distinctive – they study at distinctive pace stages and have distinctive pronunciation – they have a tendency to be finest when it arrives to learning and to speaking. With the ideal attitude, learning techniques, and advice, you can grasp any language. The quite a few added benefits are evident.

Have an understanding of the Globe

“Language is the indicates of receiving an thought from my brain into yours devoid of medical procedures” – Mark Amidon

Language is the source of quite a few misunderstandings, in particular so when speaking throughout cultural boundaries. Whilst English is commonly recognized as a broadly spoken and understood language in the planet, it is still significantly from enough for understanding cultures of other linguistic backgrounds. It goes devoid of expressing that you gain much more from a visit to a nation if you can converse in the community language and basically get to know the people instead than just speaking in English with people in the tourism business or educational elites. Use of even the most essential vocabulary allows to crack down limitations and create great associations. It demonstrates your respect toward the people of the nation and that you take a genuine desire in them.

A essential understanding of the spot language is a moderately tiny process to achieve and should really be integrated in anybody’s preparations. Learning a range of critical phrases or expressions specific to your sector or career permits you to get to out and locate or present indicating in conversations. Remaining able to get your information throughout in the language of your spot society allows you to transition much more easily and ever more immerse by yourself. You will be able to convey your views and speak for by yourself, consequently inviting options for new friendships and attaining the have faith in and respect of your hosts.

Reveal the Coronary heart of Culture

“To have another language is to have a 2nd soul” – Charlemagne

Text form the way we assume. We dissect mother nature alongside traces laid down by our indigenous language. Language is not merely a reporting unit for practical experience but a defining framework for it. Language is the highway map of a society. It tells you wherever its people come from and wherever they are going. It introduces you to a distinctive way of pondering and on the lookout at the planet. Any language has its individual abundant understanding base. The indicates to accessibility this understanding is the language alone.

Learning a language is like receiving to know an overall cultural or social process, with references to the life style, geography, historical past, arts, economic climate as nicely contemporary socio-cultural techniques which include regional dialects and diversities, garments designs, as nicely as the culinary techniques in the place wherever the language is spoken. In addition to this, when you are learning about the society and the language of a specific location you have a tendency to look at it with your individual language and society. Although performing this you assume of the similarities and discrepancies between your language and the overseas language which potential customers to a significantly much more further research of your individual language and society as nicely.

Boost Your Cognitive Capabilities

“Those who know almost nothing of overseas languages know almost nothing of their individual” – Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Learning a new language will also assist to sharpen your cognitive abilities, improve your all round learning abilities, and boost your capability for learning and performing in many other spots. Psychological adaptability, creative imagination, dilemma-resolving and reasoning abilities are among the quite a few beneficiaries of language research.

Learning a language up to any amount is a precious accomplishment in alone. Finding out languages is a multi-faceted learning practical experience, which enriches you in quite a few means. Even if you only take a single introductory study course, you will study a excellent deal about the way the new language works, you will have a sense for its rhythms and seems, and you will have an perception into the cultural track record of its speakers.  Of study course, the even more you progress, the much more precious your understanding will come to be.

Widen Your Profession Decisions

“A distinctive language is a distinctive vision of lifetime” – Federico Fellini

In an age wherever much more and much more organisations are crossing cultural boundaries, a command of overseas languages allows to crack the linguistic limitations and facilitates the trade of information and facts. When we study a overseas language, we gradually develop the variety of language at our disposal and the variety of scenarios we can deal with in that language. Learning a overseas language presents you an edge above the other folks given that you come to be much more outfitted to face the worldwide state of affairs than the people who have a restricted established of linguistic abilities.

If you journey infrequently or to many distinctive nations it is challenging to come to a decision which language to study and what amount is ideal. Even if you only achieve a essential amount, studying a overseas language demonstrates that you are prepared to make an exertion, frequently allows you to assist the organisation you are doing work for, enhances your individual career potential clients, and boosts the gratification you can derive from doing work with people of other cultural backgrounds.



Supply by Daniel Ratheiser

Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by admin - August 23, 2017 at 6:06 pm

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Simple Psychological Tips for Learning Languages

Simple Psychological Tips for Learning Languages

by Philip Yaffe

Native English-speakers are increasingly exhorted to learn foreign languages to play a more effective role in globalization. However, we tend not to learn foreign languages for three very valid reasons.

1. Many other peoples in the world are not just exhorted to learn English, they are required to do so. Thus, you can find English virtually everywhere you go.

2. The grammar of most other languages, certainly most European languages, is much more complex than English. Thus, native Anglophones often view language learning as a daunting, and even demoralizing task.

3. Most native Anglophones, especially in North America, live in almost exclusively English-speaking environments. We virtually never hear other languages spoken live, on radio or television, and virtually never see them written in newspapers, magazines, books, etc. This is hardly motivating.

The fact is, the world conspires against Anglophones learning other languages. So if you speak only English, you have no reason to be ashamed.

Nevertheless, while these factors explain why so few Anglophones know other languages, they are not valid excuses for not learning them when the situation calls for it. For example, you are sent to open or manage a foreign subsidiary, you are assigned to negotiate or maintain working relationships with a foreign partner, etc.

How should you go about learning a foreign language with the least pain and most gain? In my experience, the secret lies in changing your mindset.

I live in Brussels, Belgium. I speak French fluently, understand and can more-or-less get around in Dutch and German, and I am now rapidly acquiring Spanish. But the first language I mastered was none of these. It was Swahili, which I learned when I spent two-and-a-half years working as a Peace Corps volunteer in Tanzania.

Like many (probably most) Americans growing up in an essentially English-speaking environment, I thought the ability to speak another language required superior intelligence; only people endowed with this unique talent could actually achieve it. Shortly after I got to Tanzania, I visited in a remote tribal area where virtually everyone spoke three languages. Moreover, virtually none of them had ever seen the inside of a school (there just weren’t any schools), let alone graduated from a prestigious university (UCLA).

I therefore had to radically rethink my attitude towards language learning. This new mindset has significantly helped me master the languages I now regularly use. I will illustrate with French, the language I know best. But remember, these same tips and techniques apply to learning virtually any language

Seeing Is Learning

If you are studying French, it is probably for one of two reasons. Either you are required to do so for school or for your job. Or because French is “a language of culture,” i.e. no properly educated person should be without it.

Whatever your reason, here is some good news. Learning to speak French is perhaps the easiest part of the task.

What!

I know you may have thought that speaking is the most difficult part. However, I would argue that most people can learn to speak French reasonably well within 5-7 months.

Writing French is quite a different story. French is one of the most complex written languages in the world. In fact, written French and spoken French are almost two separate languages. If your objective is to speak French, you should first concentrate on speaking, then let the written language follow at a more leisurely pace.

In some quarters this may sound like heresy, because the majority of language courses try to teach both speaking and writing at the same time. I believe this is a mistake. Also, I am not advocating “total immersion.” Few of us have the luxury of spending a week, or preferably several weeks, totally concentrating on learning a language.

What I am advocating is doing things in the proper psychological order.

Most people can master enough basic grammar to be able to speak (poorly but nevertheless coherently), and to understand what is being said to them, really quite quickly. This is because the major obstacle to acquiring another language is not grammar; it’s vocabulary.

If you don’t know the verb you need, it doesn’t matter that you know how to conjugate French verbs; you still cannot speak. If you don’t know the adjective you need, it doesn’t matter that you know how to decline French adjectives; you still cannot speak. And so on. 

I therefore suggest that the most effective order for learning would be:

1. Basic French grammar — the minimum necessary to put together an intelligible (if incorrect) sentence

2. Basic French vocabulary — the minimum necessary to begin using the basic grammar

3. Elaborated French grammar and vocabulary — building on basic grammar and vocabulary as soon as you can actually use them

4. Writing in French — tackling the daunting task of putting French on paper.

If vocabulary is crucial, then the largely unrecognized key to learning to speak French is: Learn to read it.

There is nothing like being able to sit down with a French newspaper, magazine, or even a novel to reinforce both grammar and vocabulary. The more you read, the more your vocabulary will expand. And the more some of French’s apparently bizarre ways of doing things will seem increasingly normal.

For best results, the novel should contain a maximum of dialogue and a minimum of description. With dialogue, you can more or less anticipate and interpret what the characters are saying; with description you haven’t a clue. When I was learning French, I used mystery novels by Agatha Christie and Tarzan novels by Edgar Rice Burroughs because they are about 90 percent dialogue and 10 percent description. However, any novels with a strong emphasis of dialogue will do.

The problem is, as in English the words you see written in many, many cases will be spelled quite differently from how they are pronounced. So if you are going to improve your spoken vocabulary by reading, you will need some way of translating what is written into what is said.

You will find some important tips on how to do this at the end of the article (“How to Pronounce Silent Letters”). However, if you are lucky enough to know a native French speaker, don’t hesitate to ask him or her for help. Not to carry on a conversation, but to ensure that you are properly pronouncing what you are seeing in print. If you don’t have the luxury of a French-speaking friend, try the Internet. Put into any search engine French + audio to access an almost endless number of websites with audio examples to help you.

It’s All in the Mind

If French is your first foreign language, let me assure you that while learning it is not easy, it is far from impossible. And you don’t have to be either a genius or have a “natural talent” for languages to achieve it.

As noted above, most of the people I met in Tanzania spoke at least two languages and often three or more, even those in remote bush areas untouched by formal education. This was nothing exceptional. People in similar circumstances in virtually every country of the world speak two or more languages as a matter of course. Here in Belgium, around Brussels even burger-flippers at McDonald’s are expected to speak both Dutch and French, two of the countries three official national languages (German is the third), plus English.

If they can master other languages, certainly you can, too. Admittedly, it is never easy; however, it is far from impossible — and the rewards can be astounding.

When I first arrived in Tanzania, I was speaking in Swahili by translating through English. However, one magic day I suddenly realized that I was no longer translating through English. I was speaking in Swahili directly. It was like being released from prison. Although this happened more than 40 years ago, the picture of my cell door flying open and my mind flying free is as vivid now as the day it happened. It’s an experience not to be missed!

The process of learning another language is greatly facilitated by understanding and bearing in mind two key psychological principles.

1.   Facility Principle: What you don’t have to do is always easier than what you do have to do

In other words, the less you have to think about in learning French, the more rapidly you will learn it. And the fewer mistakes you will make. Believe it or not, French (both written and spoken) has certain features and characteristics that make it objectively easier than English. Pronunciation provides a perfect example.

Most people are largely unaware of how seriously difficult their own native language could be to a foreigner. As a native Anglophone, you probably find that English is quite easy to pronounce. But the fact is, French is even easier.

What! With its nasalization, trilled “r” and other difficult sounds? Yes, and I can prove it!

First, it is important to understand that no sounds, in any language, are inherently difficult to pronounce. If they were, they wouldn’t exist because the native speakers never would have accepted them into their language in the first place.

Learning foreign sounds is never easy; French speakers learning English have a terrible time with the “th” sound in words such as “the,” “they,” “through,” “throw,” etc. Because there is no equivalent sound in French, they have great difficulty in mastering it. But it certainly isn’t impossible. Just as it may be difficult, but certainly not impossible, for you to master unfamiliar sounds in French.

Where French pronunciation has an undeniable advantage over English (and most other European languages) is its virtual lack of a “tonic accent.”

Tonic accent simply means that certain syllables in a word are given more stress than are others. For example, “difficult” is pronounced “dif-fi-cult”; the first syllable carries the tonic accent. It could just as easily be pronounced dif-fi-cult,” which is what the Spanish prefer (dif--cil). Or even “dif-fi-cult.”

Technically, the tonic accent does exist in French, but it is very hard to hear it. For example, in English we say “un-i-ver-sal.” In French, this is “un-i-ver-sel,” with no apparent stress anywhere. Likewise with “restau-rant,which in French is “rest-au-rant.” And so on.Thus, you never have to guess where the tonic accent should go, so you can never make a mistake

As a native Anglophone, you have grown up with the tonic accent, so you might not immediately recognize what a blessing this is. However, if you have had any dealings with foreigners speaking English, you know that if they put the tonic accent on the wrong syllable, you might not understand the word at all. By foreigners, I don’t necessarily mean non-native English speakers. If you are American, try conversing with an Australian or an Englishman; you are likely to have the same problem. And vice versa.

2.   Familiarity Principle: Familiar habits and patterns of thought are often hard to break

Paradoxically, some of the aspects of French that are easier than English at first glance will appear to be strange — and therefore falsely difficult. Although it may take you some time to accept them, once you begin to think in French, you will rapidly come to appreciate them and enjoy their benefits. Here are a couple of anecdotes to illustrate the point.

  A.  Straight is more difficult than zigzag

One time I was talking with a Dutch-speaking friend. He agreed that English is fundamentally simpler than his own language; nevertheless, he complained that he just couldn’t get used to English’s simpler sentence structure. In certain instances, Dutch grammar requires the order of the words of the sentence to suddenly reverse; this never happens in English. Objectively, then, English sentence structure should be easier than Dutch. But to him, not reversing the word order just didn’t seem natural

B.  Never overlook the obvious

One day I was telling a French-speaking friend of mine about my experiences in Tanzania. I mentioned that Swahili has the interesting characteristic of forming plurals with a prefix rather than a suffix. For example, the Swahili word for book is kitabu; the plural is vitabu. So to go from the singular to the plural, you change the beginning of the word rather than the end. His reaction was swift and surprising.

He:  They can’t do that! They can’t form plurals with a prefix!

Me:  It’s their language. They can form plurals anyway they want.

He:  But it makes no sense. And I can prove it. Which is more important, what a word means or whether it is singular or plural?

Me:  What a word means.

He:  Then announcing that a word is plural before saying the word is illogical.

Me:  I agree. So why do you do the same thing in French?

He:  We don’t do that in French!

Me:  Of course you do. And I can prove it.

You need to understand that in French, as in many other languages, the definite article (“the”) has both a singular and plural form. Why? I don’t know, that’s just how it is. In French you say le livre to mean “the book,” but you say les livres to mean “the books.” The definite article le (pronounced “luh”) changes to les (pronounced “lay”). So just as in Swahili, French requires you first to announce whether the following word is singular or plural, then say what it is.

My friend was astounded. What he had found so strange, and even absurd, in another language turned out to be exactly what he was doing in his own. Suddenly Swahili no longer seemed quite so bizarre.

Context and Comprehension

Before proceeding, it is necessary to make a fundamental observation.

No amount of grammar and vocabulary can fully cover every situation that may arise in using a language, your native language or a foreign one.

Language is used to communicate meaning, but meaning often depends on context. Therefore, what you say may be grammatically correct, but still not communicate the meaning you have in mind.

The importance of context in communication can be demonstrated by a simple example. J’ai besoin d’un avocat / I need an avocat. How would you interpret this sentence? Avocat means both “avocado” and “lawyer,” so you could interpret it in two ways: 1) I am making a Mexican salad and I need this particular fruit, 2) I am having legal problems and I need professional help.

Without knowing what preceded the statement, there is no way of deciding which interpretation is correct. It is only within context that we can know.

According to the celebrated dictum, “Translation is treason.” In other words, when you go from one language to another, chances are you will fail to transfer some important nuances. I would like to propose a new dictum. Within the same language, “Context is comprehension.” In other words, many apparent problems of English or French (or any other language) tend to disappear within the context of their use.

Context is vital; it must always be taken into account.

How to Pronounce Silent Letters

If this sounds like a contradiction in terms, it really isn’t. Remember, you will be doing a lot of reading to improve your vocabulary and to get used to thinking in French. The problem is, the words you will see written in many, many cases will be spelled quite differently from how they are pronounced. So if you are going to improve your spoken vocabulary by reading, you will need some way of converting what is written into what is said. Fortunately, with many other languages (e.g. Dutch, German, Italian, Spanish, Swahili), this is much less of a problem.

The major part of the disconnection between spoken and written French has to do with silent letters. French is littered with them. However, there are some strategies you can use to help you pronounce what you see.

Silent letters that do Not affect pronunciation

Most silent letters come at the end of words. The two letters “s” and “x” almost never affect pronunciation.

The silent “s” is the ubiquitous ending for plural nouns, articles and adjectives. It is not pronounced. Neither is “x”, which also sometimes indicates a plural and is often the ending on masculine adjectives. For example: chien – chiens, grand – grands, élegant – élegants, pou – poux, jeu – jeux, peureux (adjective), fâcheux (adjective), etc.

The silent “s” is also often found at the end of words for no apparent reason other than to be decorative. For example: cas (kah), pas (pah), souris (sooree), tapis (tahpee), héros (eeroh), sans (sahn), moins (mwehn), pis (pee), etc. The words bus (bewss), as (ahss), fils (feess), non-sens (nahn-sahnss), sens (sahnss), tournevis (toornahveess), and vis (veess) are important exceptions.

The silent “x” is also often found at the end of words for no apparent reason: prix (pree), voix (vwah), noix (nwah),paix (pay), croix (krwah), taux (toh), toux (too),etc.

Words ending in a silent “s” or a silent “x” have the same pronunciations and spellings in both the singular and the plural. 

Silent letters that Do affect pronunciation

The silent “e”

The silent “e” is the ubiquitous ending indicating a feminine noun or adjective. It itself is never pronounced, but it may change the pronunciation of the syllable to which it is attached. For example: vrai – vraie, bleu – bleue, cru – crue(no change of pronunciation). But boulanger (masculine), pronounced boo-lahn-zhay; boulangère (feminine), pronounced boo-lahn-zhair. Caissier (masculine), pronounced kay-see-ay, caissière (feminine), pronounced kay-see-air. Port (masculine), pronounced por, porte (feminine), pronounced port.

Silent letters that affect pronunciation in verbs

Silent letters that change pronunciation occur mainly in conjugated verb forms, and specifically in the imperfect and conditional tenses.

Imperfect tense

Je parlais, tu parlais: The “s” itself is not pronounced. Without it, the ending “ai” would be pronounced “ay.” With it, the ending “ais” is pronounced “eh.”

Example:  parlai = par-lay. parlais = par-leh.

Il/elle parlait: The “t” itself is not pronounced. Without it, the ending “ai” would be pronounced “ay.” With it, the ending “ait” is pronounced “eh.”

Example:  parlai = par-lay. parlait = par-leh

Ils/elles parlaient:The “ent” itself is not pronounced. Without it, the ending “ai” would be pronounced “ay.” With it, the ending “aient” is pronounced “eh.”

Example:  parlai = par-lay.  parlaient = par-leh

Conditional tense

The conditional tense uses the same endings as the imperfect tense, so the effects of the silent letters are the same.

Je parlerais, tu parlerais: The “s” itself is not pronounced. Without it, the ending “ai” would be pronounced “ay.” With it, the ending “ais” is pronounced “eh.”

Example:  parlerai = par-ler-ay.  parlerais = par-ler-eh.

Il/elle parlerait: The “t” itself is not pronounced. Without it, the ending “ai” would be pronounced “ay.” With it, the ending “ait” is pronounced “eh.”

Example:  parlerai = par-ler-ay.  parlerait = par-ler-eh.

Ils/elles parleraient:The “ent” itself is not pronounced. Without it, the ending “ai” would be pronounced “ay.” With it, the ending “aient” is pronounced “eh.”

Example:  parlerai = par-ler-ay.  parleraient = par-ler-eh.

Pronouncing nouns and adjectives with silent endings

French writing is characterized by its enormous number of nouns and adjectives with silent endings that are pronounced nothing like how they are spelled. Therefore, in order to use reading as a basis for speaking, you must be able to determine their pronunciation. This is not always easy, but there are some generalizations that can help.

Words ending in a silent “t” 

Most nouns and adjectives with a silent ending other than “s” or “x” will end in a silent “t”. The combinations are:

a. ait: This combination is pronounced “ay.” Examples: attrait (ah-tray), fait (fay), lait (lay), portrait (por-tray).

b. art: This combination is pronounced “ahr.” Examples: art (ahr), part (pahr), rempart (rahm-pahr).

  1. at, ât: These are both pronounced “ah”; the accent circonflexe (^) has no effect on the pronunciation. Examples: dégât (day-gah), état (ay-tah), plat (plah), rat (rah).

d. ert: This combination is pronounced “air.” Examples: couvert (coo-vair), ouvert (oo-vair), pivert (pee-vair)

e. et, êt: This combination is pronounced “ay”; the accent circonflexe (^) has no effect on the pronunciation. Examples: billet (bee-yay), complet (com-play), filet (fee-lay), forêt (for-ay), intérêt (ehn-ter-ay).

  1. ort: This combination is pronounced “or.” Examples: fort (for), effort (eh-for), mort (mor), port (por), sort (sor), tort (tor).

g. ot: This combination is pronounced “oh.” Examples: boulot (boo-loh), complot (com-ploh), lot (loh), rigolot (ree-goh-loh)

  1. out, oût: These are both pronounced “oo”; the accent circonflexe (^) has no effect on the pronunciation. Examples: bout (boo), goût (goo), tout (too),
  1. ut: This combination is pronounced “ew” as in “few.” Examples: début (day-bew), rebut (reh-bew), statut (stah-tew), substitut (sub-stee-tew). The word but (goal, objective) is an important exception, being pronounced “bewt.” The word scorbut (scurvy), pronounced “skor-bewt” is also an exception, but you will probably have little use for it in normal conversation.

Note

 

There is no equivalent of the French “u” sound in English. It comes close to the “u” sound in “few” if you tighten your lips while saying it, This book uses “ew” to indicate the sound in writing. However, the only way to really get the sound is to listen to a French speaker — and then practice. Free online French courses with sound files are excellent for this purpose.

Words ending in “er”

The ending “er” is extremely important. It is the infinitive ending on a major class of verbs, where it is pronounced “ay.” Examples: assister (ah-sees-tay), fermer (fehr-may), manger (mahn-zhay), participer (pahr-tee-see-pay), etc.

It is also the ending on numerous nouns and adjectives, where is it also pronounced “ay.”

Examples: chantier (shan-tee-ay), fermier (fehr-mee-ay), héritier (eer-it-ee-ay), premier (pray-mee-ay), etc.

Words ending in other silent letters 

Silent endings other than “s”, “x”, “r” or “t” are relatively rare. But some of these words are rather important, so you will need to know how to pronounce them when you see them written. Here are a few of the most common ones.

  • · accord (ah-cor): agreement
  • · corps (cor): body, as in the expression ésprit de corps
  • · coup (coo): hit, strike, or blow, as in coup d’état
  • · nez (nay): nose
  • · pied (pee-ay): foot
  • · riz (ree): rice
  • · trop (troh): too much

Je vous souhaite bonne chance et bon amusement (Zhe voo soo-ate bone shance ay bon ahmusmahn) / I wish you good luck and good fun.

This article is excerpted from the author’s book Gentle French: French grammar as native speakers really use it.

—————————

Philip Yaffe was born in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1942 and grew up in Los Angeles, where he graduated from the University of California with a degree in mathematics and physics. In his senior year, he was also editor-in-chief of the Daily Bruin, UCLA’s daily student newspaper.

He has more than 40 years of experience in journalism and international marketing communication. At various points in his career, he has been a teacher of journalism, a reporter/feature writer with The Wall Street Journal, an account executive with a major international press relations agency, European marketing communication director with two major international companies, and a founding partner of a specialized marketing communication agency in Brussels, Belgium, where he has lived since 1974.

Books by this Author

The Gettysburg Approach to Writing & Speaking like a Professional

The Gettysburg Collection:

A comprehensive companion to The Gettysburg Approach to Writing & Speaking like a Professional

Actual English: English grammar as native speakers really use it

Gentle French: French grammar as native speakers really use it

What’d You Say? / Que Dites-Vous?

Fun with homophones, proverbs, expressions, false friends, and other linguistic oddities in English and French

Science for the Concerned Citizen: What You Don’t Know CAN Hurt You.

The Little Book of BIG Mistakes

The Eighth Decade: Reflections on a Life

Major Achievements of Lesser-known Scientists: Human Biology

Books in “The Essential Ten Percent” Series

(at August 2012)

College-level Writing: The Essential Ten Percent

Logical Thinking: The Essential Ten Percent

Public Speaking: The Essential Ten Percent

The Human Body: The Essential Ten Percent

Wise Humor: The Essential Ten Percent

Word for Windows: The Essential Ten Percent



Source by Philip Yaffe

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Why Learn International Languages?

Why Learn International Languages?

Our earth is acquiring ever far more linked and the citizens of the earth are speedily bridging nationwide, social, and linguistic variances. When crossing cultural boundaries, language is the one most vital device. Language presents the essential to broadening job and instructional chances, boosting the exchange of strategies and data, and of study course enjoying the magnificence of other cultures.

For numerous persons who stopped finding out languages at faculty and have not been concerned due to the fact then, the prospect of finding out new languages can be rather daunting. It can get really hard get the job done to arrive at a great normal and then there is the problem of maintaining that level of proficiency. But there is no reason why you should not delight in and thrive in finding out languages like Hindustani or Chinese. Even even though persons are all different – they learn at different velocity ranges and have different pronunciation – they tend to be most effective when it comes to finding out and to communicating. With the ideal perspective, finding out techniques, and steerage, you can master any language. The numerous added benefits are clear.

Understand the Planet

“Language is the implies of acquiring an notion from my brain into yours with out surgical treatment” – Mark Amidon

Language is the supply of numerous misunderstandings, in particular so when communicating throughout cultural boundaries. Despite the fact that English is popularly recognised as a extensively spoken and comprehended language in the earth, it is even now much from sufficient for knowing cultures of other linguistic backgrounds. It goes with out expressing that you achieve far more from a take a look at to a region if you can converse in the regional language and really get to know the persons rather than just communicating in English with persons in the tourism market or academic elites. Use of even the most fundamental vocabulary can help to split down boundaries and set up great associations. It shows your respect in direction of the persons of the region and that you get a genuine interest in them.

A fundamental expertise of the desired destination language is a reasonably small process to realize and should be included in anybody’s preparations. Discovering a selection of essential words and phrases or expressions specific to your sector or occupation permits you to arrive at out and discover or offer meaning in discussions. Becoming capable to get your information throughout in the language of your desired destination tradition allows you to transition far more comfortably and ever more immerse you. You will be capable to convey your views and converse for you, as a result inviting chances for new friendships and getting the rely on and respect of your hosts.

Reveal the Coronary heart of Culture

“To have a different language is to possess a second soul” – Charlemagne

Words shape the way we imagine. We dissect nature together strains laid down by our indigenous language. Language is not only a reporting device for working experience but a defining framework for it. Language is the highway map of a tradition. It tells you exactly where its persons come from and exactly where they are going. It introduces you to a different way of wondering and wanting at the earth. Any language has its possess wealthy expertise base. The implies to access this expertise is the language itself.

Discovering a language is like acquiring to know an whole cultural or social program, with references to the way of living, geography, historical past, arts, economic climate as properly modern socio-cultural tactics like regional dialects and diversities, clothes models, as properly as the culinary tactics in the spot exactly where the language is spoken. In addition to this, when you are finding out about the tradition and the language of a distinct area you tend to evaluate it with your possess language and tradition. Even though doing this you imagine of the similarities and variances in between your language and the overseas language which potential customers to a much far more further analyze of your possess language and tradition as properly.

Boost Your Cognitive Abilities

“People who know absolutely nothing of overseas languages know absolutely nothing of their possess” – Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Discovering a new language will also support to sharpen your cognitive capabilities, increase your general finding out talents, and boost your potential for finding out and functioning in quite a few other parts. Mental flexibility, creative imagination, issue-fixing and reasoning capabilities are among the the numerous beneficiaries of language analyze.

Discovering a language up to any level is a important achievement in itself. Learning languages is a multi-faceted finding out working experience, which enriches you in numerous approaches. Even if you only get just one introductory study course, you will learn a terrific offer about the way the new language will work, you will have a sense for its rhythms and sounds, and you will have an perception into the cultural history of its speakers.  Of study course, the further you progress, the far more important your expertise will turn into.

Widen Your Profession Options

“A different language is a different vision of lifestyle” – Federico Fellini

In an age exactly where far more and far more organisations are crossing cultural boundaries, a command of overseas languages can help to split the linguistic boundaries and facilitates the exchange of data. When we learn a overseas language, we steadily broaden the vary of language at our disposal and the vary of scenarios we can cope with in that language. Discovering a overseas language presents you an edge around the many others due to the fact you turn into far more outfitted to facial area the world wide scenario than the persons who have a confined set of linguistic capabilities.

If you journey occasionally or to different different nations around the world it is challenging to choose which language to learn and what level is acceptable. Even if you only realize a fundamental level, researching a overseas language shows that you are ready to make an effort, typically can help you to support the organisation you are operating for, boosts your particular job potential customers, and boosts the gratification you can derive from operating with persons of other cultural backgrounds.



Resource by Daniel Ratheiser

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Simple Psychological Tips for Learning Languages

Simple Psychological Tips for Learning Languages

by Philip Yaffe

Native English-speakers are increasingly exhorted to learn foreign languages to play a more effective role in globalization. However, we tend not to learn foreign languages for three very valid reasons.

1. Many other peoples in the world are not just exhorted to learn English, they are required to do so. Thus, you can find English virtually everywhere you go.

2. The grammar of most other languages, certainly most European languages, is much more complex than English. Thus, native Anglophones often view language learning as a daunting, and even demoralizing task.

3. Most native Anglophones, especially in North America, live in almost exclusively English-speaking environments. We virtually never hear other languages spoken live, on radio or television, and virtually never see them written in newspapers, magazines, books, etc. This is hardly motivating.

The fact is, the world conspires against Anglophones learning other languages. So if you speak only English, you have no reason to be ashamed.

Nevertheless, while these factors explain why so few Anglophones know other languages, they are not valid excuses for not learning them when the situation calls for it. For example, you are sent to open or manage a foreign subsidiary, you are assigned to negotiate or maintain working relationships with a foreign partner, etc.

How should you go about learning a foreign language with the least pain and most gain? In my experience, the secret lies in changing your mindset.

I live in Brussels, Belgium. I speak French fluently, understand and can more-or-less get around in Dutch and German, and I am now rapidly acquiring Spanish. But the first language I mastered was none of these. It was Swahili, which I learned when I spent two-and-a-half years working as a Peace Corps volunteer in Tanzania.

Like many (probably most) Americans growing up in an essentially English-speaking environment, I thought the ability to speak another language required superior intelligence; only people endowed with this unique talent could actually achieve it. Shortly after I got to Tanzania, I visited in a remote tribal area where virtually everyone spoke three languages. Moreover, virtually none of them had ever seen the inside of a school (there just weren’t any schools), let alone graduated from a prestigious university (UCLA).

I therefore had to radically rethink my attitude towards language learning. This new mindset has significantly helped me master the languages I now regularly use. I will illustrate with French, the language I know best. But remember, these same tips and techniques apply to learning virtually any language

Seeing Is Learning

If you are studying French, it is probably for one of two reasons. Either you are required to do so for school or for your job. Or because French is “a language of culture,” i.e. no properly educated person should be without it.

Whatever your reason, here is some good news. Learning to speak French is perhaps the easiest part of the task.

What!

I know you may have thought that speaking is the most difficult part. However, I would argue that most people can learn to speak French reasonably well within 5-7 months.

Writing French is quite a different story. French is one of the most complex written languages in the world. In fact, written French and spoken French are almost two separate languages. If your objective is to speak French, you should first concentrate on speaking, then let the written language follow at a more leisurely pace.

In some quarters this may sound like heresy, because the majority of language courses try to teach both speaking and writing at the same time. I believe this is a mistake. Also, I am not advocating “total immersion.” Few of us have the luxury of spending a week, or preferably several weeks, totally concentrating on learning a language.

What I am advocating is doing things in the proper psychological order.

Most people can master enough basic grammar to be able to speak (poorly but nevertheless coherently), and to understand what is being said to them, really quite quickly. This is because the major obstacle to acquiring another language is not grammar; it’s vocabulary.

If you don’t know the verb you need, it doesn’t matter that you know how to conjugate French verbs; you still cannot speak. If you don’t know the adjective you need, it doesn’t matter that you know how to decline French adjectives; you still cannot speak. And so on. 

I therefore suggest that the most effective order for learning would be:

1. Basic French grammar — the minimum necessary to put together an intelligible (if incorrect) sentence

2. Basic French vocabulary — the minimum necessary to begin using the basic grammar

3. Elaborated French grammar and vocabulary — building on basic grammar and vocabulary as soon as you can actually use them

4. Writing in French — tackling the daunting task of putting French on paper.

If vocabulary is crucial, then the largely unrecognized key to learning to speak French is: Learn to read it.

There is nothing like being able to sit down with a French newspaper, magazine, or even a novel to reinforce both grammar and vocabulary. The more you read, the more your vocabulary will expand. And the more some of French’s apparently bizarre ways of doing things will seem increasingly normal.

For best results, the novel should contain a maximum of dialogue and a minimum of description. With dialogue, you can more or less anticipate and interpret what the characters are saying; with description you haven’t a clue. When I was learning French, I used mystery novels by Agatha Christie and Tarzan novels by Edgar Rice Burroughs because they are about 90 percent dialogue and 10 percent description. However, any novels with a strong emphasis of dialogue will do.

The problem is, as in English the words you see written in many, many cases will be spelled quite differently from how they are pronounced. So if you are going to improve your spoken vocabulary by reading, you will need some way of translating what is written into what is said.

You will find some important tips on how to do this at the end of the article (“How to Pronounce Silent Letters”). However, if you are lucky enough to know a native French speaker, don’t hesitate to ask him or her for help. Not to carry on a conversation, but to ensure that you are properly pronouncing what you are seeing in print. If you don’t have the luxury of a French-speaking friend, try the Internet. Put into any search engine French + audio to access an almost endless number of websites with audio examples to help you.

It’s All in the Mind

If French is your first foreign language, let me assure you that while learning it is not easy, it is far from impossible. And you don’t have to be either a genius or have a “natural talent” for languages to achieve it.

As noted above, most of the people I met in Tanzania spoke at least two languages and often three or more, even those in remote bush areas untouched by formal education. This was nothing exceptional. People in similar circumstances in virtually every country of the world speak two or more languages as a matter of course. Here in Belgium, around Brussels even burger-flippers at McDonald’s are expected to speak both Dutch and French, two of the countries three official national languages (German is the third), plus English.

If they can master other languages, certainly you can, too. Admittedly, it is never easy; however, it is far from impossible — and the rewards can be astounding.

When I first arrived in Tanzania, I was speaking in Swahili by translating through English. However, one magic day I suddenly realized that I was no longer translating through English. I was speaking in Swahili directly. It was like being released from prison. Although this happened more than 40 years ago, the picture of my cell door flying open and my mind flying free is as vivid now as the day it happened. It’s an experience not to be missed!

The process of learning another language is greatly facilitated by understanding and bearing in mind two key psychological principles.

1.   Facility Principle: What you don’t have to do is always easier than what you do have to do

In other words, the less you have to think about in learning French, the more rapidly you will learn it. And the fewer mistakes you will make. Believe it or not, French (both written and spoken) has certain features and characteristics that make it objectively easier than English. Pronunciation provides a perfect example.

Most people are largely unaware of how seriously difficult their own native language could be to a foreigner. As a native Anglophone, you probably find that English is quite easy to pronounce. But the fact is, French is even easier.

What! With its nasalization, trilled “r” and other difficult sounds? Yes, and I can prove it!

First, it is important to understand that no sounds, in any language, are inherently difficult to pronounce. If they were, they wouldn’t exist because the native speakers never would have accepted them into their language in the first place.

Learning foreign sounds is never easy; French speakers learning English have a terrible time with the “th” sound in words such as “the,” “they,” “through,” “throw,” etc. Because there is no equivalent sound in French, they have great difficulty in mastering it. But it certainly isn’t impossible. Just as it may be difficult, but certainly not impossible, for you to master unfamiliar sounds in French.

Where French pronunciation has an undeniable advantage over English (and most other European languages) is its virtual lack of a “tonic accent.”

Tonic accent simply means that certain syllables in a word are given more stress than are others. For example, “difficult” is pronounced “dif-fi-cult”; the first syllable carries the tonic accent. It could just as easily be pronounced dif-fi-cult,” which is what the Spanish prefer (dif--cil). Or even “dif-fi-cult.”

Technically, the tonic accent does exist in French, but it is very hard to hear it. For example, in English we say “un-i-ver-sal.” In French, this is “un-i-ver-sel,” with no apparent stress anywhere. Likewise with “restau-rant,which in French is “rest-au-rant.” And so on.Thus, you never have to guess where the tonic accent should go, so you can never make a mistake

As a native Anglophone, you have grown up with the tonic accent, so you might not immediately recognize what a blessing this is. However, if you have had any dealings with foreigners speaking English, you know that if they put the tonic accent on the wrong syllable, you might not understand the word at all. By foreigners, I don’t necessarily mean non-native English speakers. If you are American, try conversing with an Australian or an Englishman; you are likely to have the same problem. And vice versa.

2.   Familiarity Principle: Familiar habits and patterns of thought are often hard to break

Paradoxically, some of the aspects of French that are easier than English at first glance will appear to be strange — and therefore falsely difficult. Although it may take you some time to accept them, once you begin to think in French, you will rapidly come to appreciate them and enjoy their benefits. Here are a couple of anecdotes to illustrate the point.

  A.  Straight is more difficult than zigzag

One time I was talking with a Dutch-speaking friend. He agreed that English is fundamentally simpler than his own language; nevertheless, he complained that he just couldn’t get used to English’s simpler sentence structure. In certain instances, Dutch grammar requires the order of the words of the sentence to suddenly reverse; this never happens in English. Objectively, then, English sentence structure should be easier than Dutch. But to him, not reversing the word order just didn’t seem natural

B.  Never overlook the obvious

One day I was telling a French-speaking friend of mine about my experiences in Tanzania. I mentioned that Swahili has the interesting characteristic of forming plurals with a prefix rather than a suffix. For example, the Swahili word for book is kitabu; the plural is vitabu. So to go from the singular to the plural, you change the beginning of the word rather than the end. His reaction was swift and surprising.

He:  They can’t do that! They can’t form plurals with a prefix!

Me:  It’s their language. They can form plurals anyway they want.

He:  But it makes no sense. And I can prove it. Which is more important, what a word means or whether it is singular or plural?

Me:  What a word means.

He:  Then announcing that a word is plural before saying the word is illogical.

Me:  I agree. So why do you do the same thing in French?

He:  We don’t do that in French!

Me:  Of course you do. And I can prove it.

You need to understand that in French, as in many other languages, the definite article (“the”) has both a singular and plural form. Why? I don’t know, that’s just how it is. In French you say le livre to mean “the book,” but you say les livres to mean “the books.” The definite article le (pronounced “luh”) changes to les (pronounced “lay”). So just as in Swahili, French requires you first to announce whether the following word is singular or plural, then say what it is.

My friend was astounded. What he had found so strange, and even absurd, in another language turned out to be exactly what he was doing in his own. Suddenly Swahili no longer seemed quite so bizarre.

Context and Comprehension

Before proceeding, it is necessary to make a fundamental observation.

No amount of grammar and vocabulary can fully cover every situation that may arise in using a language, your native language or a foreign one.

Language is used to communicate meaning, but meaning often depends on context. Therefore, what you say may be grammatically correct, but still not communicate the meaning you have in mind.

The importance of context in communication can be demonstrated by a simple example. J’ai besoin d’un avocat / I need an avocat. How would you interpret this sentence? Avocat means both “avocado” and “lawyer,” so you could interpret it in two ways: 1) I am making a Mexican salad and I need this particular fruit, 2) I am having legal problems and I need professional help.

Without knowing what preceded the statement, there is no way of deciding which interpretation is correct. It is only within context that we can know.

According to the celebrated dictum, “Translation is treason.” In other words, when you go from one language to another, chances are you will fail to transfer some important nuances. I would like to propose a new dictum. Within the same language, “Context is comprehension.” In other words, many apparent problems of English or French (or any other language) tend to disappear within the context of their use.

Context is vital; it must always be taken into account.

How to Pronounce Silent Letters

If this sounds like a contradiction in terms, it really isn’t. Remember, you will be doing a lot of reading to improve your vocabulary and to get used to thinking in French. The problem is, the words you will see written in many, many cases will be spelled quite differently from how they are pronounced. So if you are going to improve your spoken vocabulary by reading, you will need some way of converting what is written into what is said. Fortunately, with many other languages (e.g. Dutch, German, Italian, Spanish, Swahili), this is much less of a problem.

The major part of the disconnection between spoken and written French has to do with silent letters. French is littered with them. However, there are some strategies you can use to help you pronounce what you see.

Silent letters that do Not affect pronunciation

Most silent letters come at the end of words. The two letters “s” and “x” almost never affect pronunciation.

The silent “s” is the ubiquitous ending for plural nouns, articles and adjectives. It is not pronounced. Neither is “x”, which also sometimes indicates a plural and is often the ending on masculine adjectives. For example: chien – chiens, grand – grands, élegant – élegants, pou – poux, jeu – jeux, peureux (adjective), fâcheux (adjective), etc.

The silent “s” is also often found at the end of words for no apparent reason other than to be decorative. For example: cas (kah), pas (pah), souris (sooree), tapis (tahpee), héros (eeroh), sans (sahn), moins (mwehn), pis (pee), etc. The words bus (bewss), as (ahss), fils (feess), non-sens (nahn-sahnss), sens (sahnss), tournevis (toornahveess), and vis (veess) are important exceptions.

The silent “x” is also often found at the end of words for no apparent reason: prix (pree), voix (vwah), noix (nwah),paix (pay), croix (krwah), taux (toh), toux (too),etc.

Words ending in a silent “s” or a silent “x” have the same pronunciations and spellings in both the singular and the plural. 

Silent letters that Do affect pronunciation

The silent “e”

The silent “e” is the ubiquitous ending indicating a feminine noun or adjective. It itself is never pronounced, but it may change the pronunciation of the syllable to which it is attached. For example: vrai – vraie, bleu – bleue, cru – crue(no change of pronunciation). But boulanger (masculine), pronounced boo-lahn-zhay; boulangère (feminine), pronounced boo-lahn-zhair. Caissier (masculine), pronounced kay-see-ay, caissière (feminine), pronounced kay-see-air. Port (masculine), pronounced por, porte (feminine), pronounced port.

Silent letters that affect pronunciation in verbs

Silent letters that change pronunciation occur mainly in conjugated verb forms, and specifically in the imperfect and conditional tenses.

Imperfect tense

Je parlais, tu parlais: The “s” itself is not pronounced. Without it, the ending “ai” would be pronounced “ay.” With it, the ending “ais” is pronounced “eh.”

Example:  parlai = par-lay. parlais = par-leh.

Il/elle parlait: The “t” itself is not pronounced. Without it, the ending “ai” would be pronounced “ay.” With it, the ending “ait” is pronounced “eh.”

Example:  parlai = par-lay. parlait = par-leh

Ils/elles parlaient:The “ent” itself is not pronounced. Without it, the ending “ai” would be pronounced “ay.” With it, the ending “aient” is pronounced “eh.”

Example:  parlai = par-lay.  parlaient = par-leh

Conditional tense

The conditional tense uses the same endings as the imperfect tense, so the effects of the silent letters are the same.

Je parlerais, tu parlerais: The “s” itself is not pronounced. Without it, the ending “ai” would be pronounced “ay.” With it, the ending “ais” is pronounced “eh.”

Example:  parlerai = par-ler-ay.  parlerais = par-ler-eh.

Il/elle parlerait: The “t” itself is not pronounced. Without it, the ending “ai” would be pronounced “ay.” With it, the ending “ait” is pronounced “eh.”

Example:  parlerai = par-ler-ay.  parlerait = par-ler-eh.

Ils/elles parleraient:The “ent” itself is not pronounced. Without it, the ending “ai” would be pronounced “ay.” With it, the ending “aient” is pronounced “eh.”

Example:  parlerai = par-ler-ay.  parleraient = par-ler-eh.

Pronouncing nouns and adjectives with silent endings

French writing is characterized by its enormous number of nouns and adjectives with silent endings that are pronounced nothing like how they are spelled. Therefore, in order to use reading as a basis for speaking, you must be able to determine their pronunciation. This is not always easy, but there are some generalizations that can help.

Words ending in a silent “t” 

Most nouns and adjectives with a silent ending other than “s” or “x” will end in a silent “t”. The combinations are:

a. ait: This combination is pronounced “ay.” Examples: attrait (ah-tray), fait (fay), lait (lay), portrait (por-tray).

b. art: This combination is pronounced “ahr.” Examples: art (ahr), part (pahr), rempart (rahm-pahr).

  1. at, ât: These are both pronounced “ah”; the accent circonflexe (^) has no effect on the pronunciation. Examples: dégât (day-gah), état (ay-tah), plat (plah), rat (rah).

d. ert: This combination is pronounced “air.” Examples: couvert (coo-vair), ouvert (oo-vair), pivert (pee-vair)

e. et, êt: This combination is pronounced “ay”; the accent circonflexe (^) has no effect on the pronunciation. Examples: billet (bee-yay), complet (com-play), filet (fee-lay), forêt (for-ay), intérêt (ehn-ter-ay).

  1. ort: This combination is pronounced “or.” Examples: fort (for), effort (eh-for), mort (mor), port (por), sort (sor), tort (tor).

g. ot: This combination is pronounced “oh.” Examples: boulot (boo-loh), complot (com-ploh), lot (loh), rigolot (ree-goh-loh)

  1. out, oût: These are both pronounced “oo”; the accent circonflexe (^) has no effect on the pronunciation. Examples: bout (boo), goût (goo), tout (too),
  1. ut: This combination is pronounced “ew” as in “few.” Examples: début (day-bew), rebut (reh-bew), statut (stah-tew), substitut (sub-stee-tew). The word but (goal, objective) is an important exception, being pronounced “bewt.” The word scorbut (scurvy), pronounced “skor-bewt” is also an exception, but you will probably have little use for it in normal conversation.

Note

 

There is no equivalent of the French “u” sound in English. It comes close to the “u” sound in “few” if you tighten your lips while saying it, This book uses “ew” to indicate the sound in writing. However, the only way to really get the sound is to listen to a French speaker — and then practice. Free online French courses with sound files are excellent for this purpose.

Words ending in “er”

The ending “er” is extremely important. It is the infinitive ending on a major class of verbs, where it is pronounced “ay.” Examples: assister (ah-sees-tay), fermer (fehr-may), manger (mahn-zhay), participer (pahr-tee-see-pay), etc.

It is also the ending on numerous nouns and adjectives, where is it also pronounced “ay.”

Examples: chantier (shan-tee-ay), fermier (fehr-mee-ay), héritier (eer-it-ee-ay), premier (pray-mee-ay), etc.

Words ending in other silent letters 

Silent endings other than “s”, “x”, “r” or “t” are relatively rare. But some of these words are rather important, so you will need to know how to pronounce them when you see them written. Here are a few of the most common ones.

  • · accord (ah-cor): agreement
  • · corps (cor): body, as in the expression ésprit de corps
  • · coup (coo): hit, strike, or blow, as in coup d’état
  • · nez (nay): nose
  • · pied (pee-ay): foot
  • · riz (ree): rice
  • · trop (troh): too much

Je vous souhaite bonne chance et bon amusement (Zhe voo soo-ate bone shance ay bon ahmusmahn) / I wish you good luck and good fun.

This article is excerpted from the author’s book Gentle French: French grammar as native speakers really use it.

—————————

Philip Yaffe was born in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1942 and grew up in Los Angeles, where he graduated from the University of California with a degree in mathematics and physics. In his senior year, he was also editor-in-chief of the Daily Bruin, UCLA’s daily student newspaper.

He has more than 40 years of experience in journalism and international marketing communication. At various points in his career, he has been a teacher of journalism, a reporter/feature writer with The Wall Street Journal, an account executive with a major international press relations agency, European marketing communication director with two major international companies, and a founding partner of a specialized marketing communication agency in Brussels, Belgium, where he has lived since 1974.

Books by this Author

The Gettysburg Approach to Writing & Speaking like a Professional

The Gettysburg Collection:

A comprehensive companion to The Gettysburg Approach to Writing & Speaking like a Professional

Actual English: English grammar as native speakers really use it

Gentle French: French grammar as native speakers really use it

What’d You Say? / Que Dites-Vous?

Fun with homophones, proverbs, expressions, false friends, and other linguistic oddities in English and French

Science for the Concerned Citizen: What You Don’t Know CAN Hurt You.

The Little Book of BIG Mistakes

The Eighth Decade: Reflections on a Life

Major Achievements of Lesser-known Scientists: Human Biology

Books in “The Essential Ten Percent” Series

(at August 2012)

College-level Writing: The Essential Ten Percent

Logical Thinking: The Essential Ten Percent

Public Speaking: The Essential Ten Percent

The Human Body: The Essential Ten Percent

Wise Humor: The Essential Ten Percent

Word for Windows: The Essential Ten Percent



Source by Philip Yaffe

Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by admin - August 8, 2017 at 5:24 am

Categories: Asian best food   Tags: , , , , , , ,

Simple Psychological Tips for Learning Languages

Simple Psychological Tips for Learning Languages

by Philip Yaffe

Native English-speakers are increasingly exhorted to learn foreign languages to play a more effective role in globalization. However, we tend not to learn foreign languages for three very valid reasons.

1. Many other peoples in the world are not just exhorted to learn English, they are required to do so. Thus, you can find English virtually everywhere you go.

2. The grammar of most other languages, certainly most European languages, is much more complex than English. Thus, native Anglophones often view language learning as a daunting, and even demoralizing task.

3. Most native Anglophones, especially in North America, live in almost exclusively English-speaking environments. We virtually never hear other languages spoken live, on radio or television, and virtually never see them written in newspapers, magazines, books, etc. This is hardly motivating.

The fact is, the world conspires against Anglophones learning other languages. So if you speak only English, you have no reason to be ashamed.

Nevertheless, while these factors explain why so few Anglophones know other languages, they are not valid excuses for not learning them when the situation calls for it. For example, you are sent to open or manage a foreign subsidiary, you are assigned to negotiate or maintain working relationships with a foreign partner, etc.

How should you go about learning a foreign language with the least pain and most gain? In my experience, the secret lies in changing your mindset.

I live in Brussels, Belgium. I speak French fluently, understand and can more-or-less get around in Dutch and German, and I am now rapidly acquiring Spanish. But the first language I mastered was none of these. It was Swahili, which I learned when I spent two-and-a-half years working as a Peace Corps volunteer in Tanzania.

Like many (probably most) Americans growing up in an essentially English-speaking environment, I thought the ability to speak another language required superior intelligence; only people endowed with this unique talent could actually achieve it. Shortly after I got to Tanzania, I visited in a remote tribal area where virtually everyone spoke three languages. Moreover, virtually none of them had ever seen the inside of a school (there just weren’t any schools), let alone graduated from a prestigious university (UCLA).

I therefore had to radically rethink my attitude towards language learning. This new mindset has significantly helped me master the languages I now regularly use. I will illustrate with French, the language I know best. But remember, these same tips and techniques apply to learning virtually any language

Seeing Is Learning

If you are studying French, it is probably for one of two reasons. Either you are required to do so for school or for your job. Or because French is “a language of culture,” i.e. no properly educated person should be without it.

Whatever your reason, here is some good news. Learning to speak French is perhaps the easiest part of the task.

What!

I know you may have thought that speaking is the most difficult part. However, I would argue that most people can learn to speak French reasonably well within 5-7 months.

Writing French is quite a different story. French is one of the most complex written languages in the world. In fact, written French and spoken French are almost two separate languages. If your objective is to speak French, you should first concentrate on speaking, then let the written language follow at a more leisurely pace.

In some quarters this may sound like heresy, because the majority of language courses try to teach both speaking and writing at the same time. I believe this is a mistake. Also, I am not advocating “total immersion.” Few of us have the luxury of spending a week, or preferably several weeks, totally concentrating on learning a language.

What I am advocating is doing things in the proper psychological order.

Most people can master enough basic grammar to be able to speak (poorly but nevertheless coherently), and to understand what is being said to them, really quite quickly. This is because the major obstacle to acquiring another language is not grammar; it’s vocabulary.

If you don’t know the verb you need, it doesn’t matter that you know how to conjugate French verbs; you still cannot speak. If you don’t know the adjective you need, it doesn’t matter that you know how to decline French adjectives; you still cannot speak. And so on. 

I therefore suggest that the most effective order for learning would be:

1. Basic French grammar — the minimum necessary to put together an intelligible (if incorrect) sentence

2. Basic French vocabulary — the minimum necessary to begin using the basic grammar

3. Elaborated French grammar and vocabulary — building on basic grammar and vocabulary as soon as you can actually use them

4. Writing in French — tackling the daunting task of putting French on paper.

If vocabulary is crucial, then the largely unrecognized key to learning to speak French is: Learn to read it.

There is nothing like being able to sit down with a French newspaper, magazine, or even a novel to reinforce both grammar and vocabulary. The more you read, the more your vocabulary will expand. And the more some of French’s apparently bizarre ways of doing things will seem increasingly normal.

For best results, the novel should contain a maximum of dialogue and a minimum of description. With dialogue, you can more or less anticipate and interpret what the characters are saying; with description you haven’t a clue. When I was learning French, I used mystery novels by Agatha Christie and Tarzan novels by Edgar Rice Burroughs because they are about 90 percent dialogue and 10 percent description. However, any novels with a strong emphasis of dialogue will do.

The problem is, as in English the words you see written in many, many cases will be spelled quite differently from how they are pronounced. So if you are going to improve your spoken vocabulary by reading, you will need some way of translating what is written into what is said.

You will find some important tips on how to do this at the end of the article (“How to Pronounce Silent Letters”). However, if you are lucky enough to know a native French speaker, don’t hesitate to ask him or her for help. Not to carry on a conversation, but to ensure that you are properly pronouncing what you are seeing in print. If you don’t have the luxury of a French-speaking friend, try the Internet. Put into any search engine French + audio to access an almost endless number of websites with audio examples to help you.

It’s All in the Mind

If French is your first foreign language, let me assure you that while learning it is not easy, it is far from impossible. And you don’t have to be either a genius or have a “natural talent” for languages to achieve it.

As noted above, most of the people I met in Tanzania spoke at least two languages and often three or more, even those in remote bush areas untouched by formal education. This was nothing exceptional. People in similar circumstances in virtually every country of the world speak two or more languages as a matter of course. Here in Belgium, around Brussels even burger-flippers at McDonald’s are expected to speak both Dutch and French, two of the countries three official national languages (German is the third), plus English.

If they can master other languages, certainly you can, too. Admittedly, it is never easy; however, it is far from impossible — and the rewards can be astounding.

When I first arrived in Tanzania, I was speaking in Swahili by translating through English. However, one magic day I suddenly realized that I was no longer translating through English. I was speaking in Swahili directly. It was like being released from prison. Although this happened more than 40 years ago, the picture of my cell door flying open and my mind flying free is as vivid now as the day it happened. It’s an experience not to be missed!

The process of learning another language is greatly facilitated by understanding and bearing in mind two key psychological principles.

1.   Facility Principle: What you don’t have to do is always easier than what you do have to do

In other words, the less you have to think about in learning French, the more rapidly you will learn it. And the fewer mistakes you will make. Believe it or not, French (both written and spoken) has certain features and characteristics that make it objectively easier than English. Pronunciation provides a perfect example.

Most people are largely unaware of how seriously difficult their own native language could be to a foreigner. As a native Anglophone, you probably find that English is quite easy to pronounce. But the fact is, French is even easier.

What! With its nasalization, trilled “r” and other difficult sounds? Yes, and I can prove it!

First, it is important to understand that no sounds, in any language, are inherently difficult to pronounce. If they were, they wouldn’t exist because the native speakers never would have accepted them into their language in the first place.

Learning foreign sounds is never easy; French speakers learning English have a terrible time with the “th” sound in words such as “the,” “they,” “through,” “throw,” etc. Because there is no equivalent sound in French, they have great difficulty in mastering it. But it certainly isn’t impossible. Just as it may be difficult, but certainly not impossible, for you to master unfamiliar sounds in French.

Where French pronunciation has an undeniable advantage over English (and most other European languages) is its virtual lack of a “tonic accent.”

Tonic accent simply means that certain syllables in a word are given more stress than are others. For example, “difficult” is pronounced “dif-fi-cult”; the first syllable carries the tonic accent. It could just as easily be pronounced dif-fi-cult,” which is what the Spanish prefer (dif--cil). Or even “dif-fi-cult.”

Technically, the tonic accent does exist in French, but it is very hard to hear it. For example, in English we say “un-i-ver-sal.” In French, this is “un-i-ver-sel,” with no apparent stress anywhere. Likewise with “restau-rant,which in French is “rest-au-rant.” And so on.Thus, you never have to guess where the tonic accent should go, so you can never make a mistake

As a native Anglophone, you have grown up with the tonic accent, so you might not immediately recognize what a blessing this is. However, if you have had any dealings with foreigners speaking English, you know that if they put the tonic accent on the wrong syllable, you might not understand the word at all. By foreigners, I don’t necessarily mean non-native English speakers. If you are American, try conversing with an Australian or an Englishman; you are likely to have the same problem. And vice versa.

2.   Familiarity Principle: Familiar habits and patterns of thought are often hard to break

Paradoxically, some of the aspects of French that are easier than English at first glance will appear to be strange — and therefore falsely difficult. Although it may take you some time to accept them, once you begin to think in French, you will rapidly come to appreciate them and enjoy their benefits. Here are a couple of anecdotes to illustrate the point.

  A.  Straight is more difficult than zigzag

One time I was talking with a Dutch-speaking friend. He agreed that English is fundamentally simpler than his own language; nevertheless, he complained that he just couldn’t get used to English’s simpler sentence structure. In certain instances, Dutch grammar requires the order of the words of the sentence to suddenly reverse; this never happens in English. Objectively, then, English sentence structure should be easier than Dutch. But to him, not reversing the word order just didn’t seem natural

B.  Never overlook the obvious

One day I was telling a French-speaking friend of mine about my experiences in Tanzania. I mentioned that Swahili has the interesting characteristic of forming plurals with a prefix rather than a suffix. For example, the Swahili word for book is kitabu; the plural is vitabu. So to go from the singular to the plural, you change the beginning of the word rather than the end. His reaction was swift and surprising.

He:  They can’t do that! They can’t form plurals with a prefix!

Me:  It’s their language. They can form plurals anyway they want.

He:  But it makes no sense. And I can prove it. Which is more important, what a word means or whether it is singular or plural?

Me:  What a word means.

He:  Then announcing that a word is plural before saying the word is illogical.

Me:  I agree. So why do you do the same thing in French?

He:  We don’t do that in French!

Me:  Of course you do. And I can prove it.

You need to understand that in French, as in many other languages, the definite article (“the”) has both a singular and plural form. Why? I don’t know, that’s just how it is. In French you say le livre to mean “the book,” but you say les livres to mean “the books.” The definite article le (pronounced “luh”) changes to les (pronounced “lay”). So just as in Swahili, French requires you first to announce whether the following word is singular or plural, then say what it is.

My friend was astounded. What he had found so strange, and even absurd, in another language turned out to be exactly what he was doing in his own. Suddenly Swahili no longer seemed quite so bizarre.

Context and Comprehension

Before proceeding, it is necessary to make a fundamental observation.

No amount of grammar and vocabulary can fully cover every situation that may arise in using a language, your native language or a foreign one.

Language is used to communicate meaning, but meaning often depends on context. Therefore, what you say may be grammatically correct, but still not communicate the meaning you have in mind.

The importance of context in communication can be demonstrated by a simple example. J’ai besoin d’un avocat / I need an avocat. How would you interpret this sentence? Avocat means both “avocado” and “lawyer,” so you could interpret it in two ways: 1) I am making a Mexican salad and I need this particular fruit, 2) I am having legal problems and I need professional help.

Without knowing what preceded the statement, there is no way of deciding which interpretation is correct. It is only within context that we can know.

According to the celebrated dictum, “Translation is treason.” In other words, when you go from one language to another, chances are you will fail to transfer some important nuances. I would like to propose a new dictum. Within the same language, “Context is comprehension.” In other words, many apparent problems of English or French (or any other language) tend to disappear within the context of their use.

Context is vital; it must always be taken into account.

How to Pronounce Silent Letters

If this sounds like a contradiction in terms, it really isn’t. Remember, you will be doing a lot of reading to improve your vocabulary and to get used to thinking in French. The problem is, the words you will see written in many, many cases will be spelled quite differently from how they are pronounced. So if you are going to improve your spoken vocabulary by reading, you will need some way of converting what is written into what is said. Fortunately, with many other languages (e.g. Dutch, German, Italian, Spanish, Swahili), this is much less of a problem.

The major part of the disconnection between spoken and written French has to do with silent letters. French is littered with them. However, there are some strategies you can use to help you pronounce what you see.

Silent letters that do Not affect pronunciation

Most silent letters come at the end of words. The two letters “s” and “x” almost never affect pronunciation.

The silent “s” is the ubiquitous ending for plural nouns, articles and adjectives. It is not pronounced. Neither is “x”, which also sometimes indicates a plural and is often the ending on masculine adjectives. For example: chien – chiens, grand – grands, élegant – élegants, pou – poux, jeu – jeux, peureux (adjective), fâcheux (adjective), etc.

The silent “s” is also often found at the end of words for no apparent reason other than to be decorative. For example: cas (kah), pas (pah), souris (sooree), tapis (tahpee), héros (eeroh), sans (sahn), moins (mwehn), pis (pee), etc. The words bus (bewss), as (ahss), fils (feess), non-sens (nahn-sahnss), sens (sahnss), tournevis (toornahveess), and vis (veess) are important exceptions.

The silent “x” is also often found at the end of words for no apparent reason: prix (pree), voix (vwah), noix (nwah),paix (pay), croix (krwah), taux (toh), toux (too),etc.

Words ending in a silent “s” or a silent “x” have the same pronunciations and spellings in both the singular and the plural. 

Silent letters that Do affect pronunciation

The silent “e”

The silent “e” is the ubiquitous ending indicating a feminine noun or adjective. It itself is never pronounced, but it may change the pronunciation of the syllable to which it is attached. For example: vrai – vraie, bleu – bleue, cru – crue(no change of pronunciation). But boulanger (masculine), pronounced boo-lahn-zhay; boulangère (feminine), pronounced boo-lahn-zhair. Caissier (masculine), pronounced kay-see-ay, caissière (feminine), pronounced kay-see-air. Port (masculine), pronounced por, porte (feminine), pronounced port.

Silent letters that affect pronunciation in verbs

Silent letters that change pronunciation occur mainly in conjugated verb forms, and specifically in the imperfect and conditional tenses.

Imperfect tense

Je parlais, tu parlais: The “s” itself is not pronounced. Without it, the ending “ai” would be pronounced “ay.” With it, the ending “ais” is pronounced “eh.”

Example:  parlai = par-lay. parlais = par-leh.

Il/elle parlait: The “t” itself is not pronounced. Without it, the ending “ai” would be pronounced “ay.” With it, the ending “ait” is pronounced “eh.”

Example:  parlai = par-lay. parlait = par-leh

Ils/elles parlaient:The “ent” itself is not pronounced. Without it, the ending “ai” would be pronounced “ay.” With it, the ending “aient” is pronounced “eh.”

Example:  parlai = par-lay.  parlaient = par-leh

Conditional tense

The conditional tense uses the same endings as the imperfect tense, so the effects of the silent letters are the same.

Je parlerais, tu parlerais: The “s” itself is not pronounced. Without it, the ending “ai” would be pronounced “ay.” With it, the ending “ais” is pronounced “eh.”

Example:  parlerai = par-ler-ay.  parlerais = par-ler-eh.

Il/elle parlerait: The “t” itself is not pronounced. Without it, the ending “ai” would be pronounced “ay.” With it, the ending “ait” is pronounced “eh.”

Example:  parlerai = par-ler-ay.  parlerait = par-ler-eh.

Ils/elles parleraient:The “ent” itself is not pronounced. Without it, the ending “ai” would be pronounced “ay.” With it, the ending “aient” is pronounced “eh.”

Example:  parlerai = par-ler-ay.  parleraient = par-ler-eh.

Pronouncing nouns and adjectives with silent endings

French writing is characterized by its enormous number of nouns and adjectives with silent endings that are pronounced nothing like how they are spelled. Therefore, in order to use reading as a basis for speaking, you must be able to determine their pronunciation. This is not always easy, but there are some generalizations that can help.

Words ending in a silent “t” 

Most nouns and adjectives with a silent ending other than “s” or “x” will end in a silent “t”. The combinations are:

a. ait: This combination is pronounced “ay.” Examples: attrait (ah-tray), fait (fay), lait (lay), portrait (por-tray).

b. art: This combination is pronounced “ahr.” Examples: art (ahr), part (pahr), rempart (rahm-pahr).

  1. at, ât: These are both pronounced “ah”; the accent circonflexe (^) has no effect on the pronunciation. Examples: dégât (day-gah), état (ay-tah), plat (plah), rat (rah).

d. ert: This combination is pronounced “air.” Examples: couvert (coo-vair), ouvert (oo-vair), pivert (pee-vair)

e. et, êt: This combination is pronounced “ay”; the accent circonflexe (^) has no effect on the pronunciation. Examples: billet (bee-yay), complet (com-play), filet (fee-lay), forêt (for-ay), intérêt (ehn-ter-ay).

  1. ort: This combination is pronounced “or.” Examples: fort (for), effort (eh-for), mort (mor), port (por), sort (sor), tort (tor).

g. ot: This combination is pronounced “oh.” Examples: boulot (boo-loh), complot (com-ploh), lot (loh), rigolot (ree-goh-loh)

  1. out, oût: These are both pronounced “oo”; the accent circonflexe (^) has no effect on the pronunciation. Examples: bout (boo), goût (goo), tout (too),
  1. ut: This combination is pronounced “ew” as in “few.” Examples: début (day-bew), rebut (reh-bew), statut (stah-tew), substitut (sub-stee-tew). The word but (goal, objective) is an important exception, being pronounced “bewt.” The word scorbut (scurvy), pronounced “skor-bewt” is also an exception, but you will probably have little use for it in normal conversation.

Note

 

There is no equivalent of the French “u” sound in English. It comes close to the “u” sound in “few” if you tighten your lips while saying it, This book uses “ew” to indicate the sound in writing. However, the only way to really get the sound is to listen to a French speaker — and then practice. Free online French courses with sound files are excellent for this purpose.

Words ending in “er”

The ending “er” is extremely important. It is the infinitive ending on a major class of verbs, where it is pronounced “ay.” Examples: assister (ah-sees-tay), fermer (fehr-may), manger (mahn-zhay), participer (pahr-tee-see-pay), etc.

It is also the ending on numerous nouns and adjectives, where is it also pronounced “ay.”

Examples: chantier (shan-tee-ay), fermier (fehr-mee-ay), héritier (eer-it-ee-ay), premier (pray-mee-ay), etc.

Words ending in other silent letters 

Silent endings other than “s”, “x”, “r” or “t” are relatively rare. But some of these words are rather important, so you will need to know how to pronounce them when you see them written. Here are a few of the most common ones.

  • · accord (ah-cor): agreement
  • · corps (cor): body, as in the expression ésprit de corps
  • · coup (coo): hit, strike, or blow, as in coup d’état
  • · nez (nay): nose
  • · pied (pee-ay): foot
  • · riz (ree): rice
  • · trop (troh): too much

Je vous souhaite bonne chance et bon amusement (Zhe voo soo-ate bone shance ay bon ahmusmahn) / I wish you good luck and good fun.

This article is excerpted from the author’s book Gentle French: French grammar as native speakers really use it.

—————————

Philip Yaffe was born in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1942 and grew up in Los Angeles, where he graduated from the University of California with a degree in mathematics and physics. In his senior year, he was also editor-in-chief of the Daily Bruin, UCLA’s daily student newspaper.

He has more than 40 years of experience in journalism and international marketing communication. At various points in his career, he has been a teacher of journalism, a reporter/feature writer with The Wall Street Journal, an account executive with a major international press relations agency, European marketing communication director with two major international companies, and a founding partner of a specialized marketing communication agency in Brussels, Belgium, where he has lived since 1974.

Books by this Author

The Gettysburg Approach to Writing & Speaking like a Professional

The Gettysburg Collection:

A comprehensive companion to The Gettysburg Approach to Writing & Speaking like a Professional

Actual English: English grammar as native speakers really use it

Gentle French: French grammar as native speakers really use it

What’d You Say? / Que Dites-Vous?

Fun with homophones, proverbs, expressions, false friends, and other linguistic oddities in English and French

Science for the Concerned Citizen: What You Don’t Know CAN Hurt You.

The Little Book of BIG Mistakes

The Eighth Decade: Reflections on a Life

Major Achievements of Lesser-known Scientists: Human Biology

Books in “The Essential Ten Percent” Series

(at August 2012)

College-level Writing: The Essential Ten Percent

Logical Thinking: The Essential Ten Percent

Public Speaking: The Essential Ten Percent

The Human Body: The Essential Ten Percent

Wise Humor: The Essential Ten Percent

Word for Windows: The Essential Ten Percent



Source by Philip Yaffe

Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by admin - August 7, 2017 at 12:52 pm

Categories: Asian best food   Tags: , , , , , , ,

How to Keep away from Interaction Blunders in Foreign Languages and Get Far more Global Purchasers Rapidly

How to Keep away from Interaction Blunders in Foreign Languages and Get Far more Global Purchasers Rapidly


Your intercontinental small business advancement can easily be jeopardized with poor gross sales and advertising duplicate.

In intercontinental small business advancement employing your domestic gross sales and advertising components will jeopardize your intercontinental results.

For all of your international clientele you will require to have your gross sales and advertising components published for your international country.

But how can you stay clear of translation blunders? Effectively let us aspect-action the concern of translation.

There is 1 important rule for finding substantial ability gross sales and advertising conversation:

  • You require the proper person to do the occupation.

And the very same rule applies for duplicate that receives results in a international language.

  • Not just any “proper” person.

If your small business is well worth nearly anything, you require to have all of your gross sales and advertising components published, or at the incredibly least proof study in depth, by a skilled who is an qualified in your particular small business and superior at composing gross sales components in his have country.

The skilled could be identified as distinctive titles in distinctive nations around the world. He may be identified as a “copywriter”, or a “conversation qualified”, or a “advertising qualified”. You will have to double test that this skilled does truly compose superior gross sales duplicate for his occupation.

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The Ideal Foreign Writer’s Profile

Just to emphasize this yet again, preferably the person composing your gross sales and advertising components should:

  • Be of mom tongue in the international language
  • at present reside in your focus on sector
  • be a lively skilled in composing superior gross sales duplicate
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  • be extremely fluent in your language to thoroughly recognize your advertising conversation to your present-day marketplaces

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If two or three points are lacking…it’s possible you should revise your objectives.

Real Entire world Challenge

In the actual planet, companies do not choose the time to get their intercontinental gross sales and advertising components published by someone conference all of these qualifications.

Businesses will not want to invest the time to find the proper person, will not know exactly where to find him, or will not want to wait around for the translations.

Businesses also visualize the translation price range will be way out of their means without making an attempt to find the proper alternative to in good shape their price range.

And still you may be nearer to locating the proper person than you feel.

Guerrilla Alternatives To Get Fantastic Foreign Copy Speedy And Affordable

If your intercontinental small business advancement is on a limited price range, why will not you inquire concerns when executing your international sector exploration over the cellular phone? Start networking “over there”. Preferably you require to find a writer residing and working in your international county. So beginning there can make feeling.

Continue to keep networking, find out exactly where these people are positioned, what their occupation titles can be, regardless of whether other specialists also require to do superior composing. Continue to keep looking.

You may find a international gross sales agent who would compose your gross sales duplicate for you for a greater fee advertising your product to clientele in his country. A superior intercontinental gross sales agent may presently be executing this for his clientele.

If you begin off by restricting your international gross sales material to a single landing web site and a regular international conversation software for example, you will find it a lot easier to find the proper alternative speedily. As you come to be additional acquainted with the intercontinental landscape you will know exactly where to search for better answers.

Considering outdoors of the box and employing each the cellular phone and the internet will assist you find the alternative you require to get wonderful gross sales duplicate in a international language.

This will give you gross sales duplicate assured culturally blunder-free of charge.

And additional importantly, your gross sales duplicate will have the ability to get you intercontinental clientele.

Are you committed to speeding up your intercontinental gross sales cycles?

Study how to mix cross-cultural advertising tools and intercontinental gross sales methods for more quickly gross sales.

Be a part of us on the Global Product sales Road Map

Would you like to build your intercontinental small business?
Are you a starter at intercontinental gross sales and advertising?
Browse the Newbies Manual Discover Your Global Small business



Source by Cindy King

Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by admin - August 5, 2017 at 8:11 pm

Categories: Asian best food   Tags: , , , , , , , , ,

How to Avoid Conversation Errors in Overseas Languages and Get A lot more Global Clientele Speedily

How to Avoid Conversation Errors in Overseas Languages and Get A lot more Global Clientele Speedily


Your global business enterprise improvement can conveniently be jeopardized with bad gross sales and marketing and advertising copy.

In global business enterprise improvement using your domestic gross sales and marketing and advertising components will jeopardize your global final results.

For all of your international clients you will will need to have your gross sales and marketing and advertising components created for your international region.

But how can you stay clear of translation blunders? Perfectly let’s aspect-phase the problem of translation.

There is 1 significant rule for finding large electricity gross sales and marketing and advertising conversation:

  • You will need the ideal human being to do the occupation.

And the exact rule applies for copy that gets final results in a international language.

  • Not just any “ideal” human being.

If your business enterprise is value anything, you will need to have all of your gross sales and marketing and advertising components created, or at the quite minimum evidence go through in element, by a expert who is an expert in your specific business enterprise and great at crafting gross sales components in his individual region.

The expert may possibly be identified as diverse titles in diverse nations. He could possibly be identified as a “copywriter”, or a “conversation expert”, or a “marketing and advertising expert”. You will have to double examine that this expert does actually compose great gross sales copy for his occupation.

This will give you high quality gross sales copy in the international language.

Getting the ideal expert compose your gross sales copy is usually a great deal greater than having a expert translator translate your gross sales copy into a international language.

The ideal human being will seem at all of your marketing and advertising and gross sales components to have an understanding of all of your recent gross sales details. He will then “translate” these gross sales details culturally to the his individual marketplace and compose you great gross sales and marketing and advertising components in the international marketplace.

The Suitable Overseas Writer’s Profile

Just to emphasize this once again, preferably the human being crafting your gross sales and marketing and advertising components should:

  • Be of mom tongue in the international language
  • at this time reside in your concentrate on marketplace
  • be a energetic expert in crafting great gross sales copy
  • have a substantial expert qualifications in your business enterprise
  • be remarkably fluent in your language to absolutely have an understanding of your marketing and advertising conversation to your recent marketplaces

If the author does not meet any 1 of these details, your gross sales copy will shed its electricity to produce international.

If two or a few details are lacking…probably you should revise your goals.

Real Globe Challenge

In the serious entire world, enterprises do not just take the time to get their global gross sales and marketing and advertising components created by another person conference all of these skills.

Businesses really don’t want to expend the time to uncover the ideal human being, really don’t know where by to uncover him, or really don’t want to hold out for the translations.

Businesses also picture the translation funds will be way out of their signifies devoid of striving to uncover the ideal remedy to suit their funds.

And yet you could possibly be closer to obtaining the ideal human being than you believe.

Guerrilla Remedies To Get Very good Overseas Copy Rapidly And Inexpensive

If your global business enterprise improvement is on a limited funds, why really don’t you talk to queries when performing your international marketplace research over the cell phone? Get started networking “over there”. Ideally you will need to uncover a author living and operating in your international county. So setting up there can make sense.

Hold networking, uncover out where by such men and women are positioned, what their occupation titles can be, no matter if other pros also will need to do great crafting. Hold on the lookout.

You could possibly uncover a international gross sales agent who would compose your gross sales copy for you for a greater fee advertising your product to clients in his region. A great global gross sales agent could possibly currently be performing this for his clients.

If you begin off by restricting your international gross sales content material to a solitary landing webpage and a regular international conversation resource for illustration, you will uncover it less complicated to uncover the ideal remedy immediately. As you turn into more common with the global landscape you will know where by to seem for greater answers.

Thinking outdoors of the box and using both the cell phone and the online will enable you uncover the remedy you will need to get fantastic gross sales copy in a international language.

This will give you gross sales copy confirmed culturally blunder-free of charge.

And more importantly, your gross sales copy will have the electricity to get you global clients.

Are you dedicated to dashing up your global gross sales cycles?

Understand how to merge cross-cultural marketing and advertising instruments and global gross sales tactics for speedier gross sales.

Be part of us on the Global Sales Street Map

Would you like to acquire your global business enterprise?
Are you a starter at global gross sales and marketing and advertising?
Go through the Inexperienced persons Guide Uncover Your Global Enterprise



Resource by Cindy King

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